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Acetonitrile

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Name

Acetonitrile

EINECS 200-835-2
CAS No. 75-05-8 Density 0.747 g/cm3
Solubility miscible with water Melting Point -46 °C
Formula C2H3N Boiling Point 63.452 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 41.05 Flash Point 5.556 °C
Transport Information UN 1993 3/PG 3 Appearance Clear liquid
Safety 16-36/37-45-36/37/39-27-26-36 Risk Codes 11-36-20/21/22-10-36/37/38-23/24/25-41-24-20/22
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 75-05-8 (Acetonitrile) Hazard Symbols FlammableF, HarmfulXn, IrritantXi, ToxicT
Synonyms

Acetonitrilecluster;Cyanomethane;Ethanenitrile;Ethyl nitrile;Methane, cyano-;Methanecarbonitrile;Methyl cyanide;Methyl cyanide (MeCN);NSC 7593;

 

Acetonitrile Consensus Reports

Related NITRILES propionitrile, BUTYRONITRILE
Related compounds acetic acid, acetamide, ethylamine 

Acetonitrile Specification

The Acetonitrile, with the register number 75-05-8, is a kind of colorless transparent liquid. Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula CH3CN. It also can be called Cyanomethane and Methyl cyanide . It is produced mainly as a byproduct of acrylonitrile manufacture, and can also be produced by many other methods, but these are of no commercial importance as of 2002. Starting in October 2008, the worldwide supply of Acetonitrile was low because Chinese production was shut down for the Olympics. In inorganic chemistry, acetonitrile is employed as a solvent and often an easily displaceable ligand. It has only a modest toxicity, but it can be metabolised to produce hydrogen cyanide (see below), which is the source of the observed toxic effects. In common with other nitriles, acetonitrile can be metabolised in microsomes, especially in the liver, to produce hydrogen cyanide, as was first shown by Pozzani et al.

Physical properties about Acetonitrile are: (1)ACD/LogP: -0.334; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -0.33; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -0.33; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5):15.68; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 15.68; (8)#H bond acceptors: 1; (9)Index of Refraction: 1.331; (10)Molar Refractivity: 11.228 cm3; (11)Molar Volume: 54.932 cm3; (12)Polarizability: 4.451 10-24cm3; (13)Surface Tension: 22.7880001068115 dyne/cm; (14)Density: 0.747 g/cm3; (15)Flash Point: 5.556 °C; (16)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 29.75 kJ/mol; (17)Boiling Point: 63.452 °C at 760 mmHg; (18)Vapour Pressure: 170.996002197266 mmHg at 25°C

Uses of Acetonitrile: Acetonitrile is used mainly as a solvent in the purification of butadiene in refineries. It is widely used in battery applications because of its relatively high dielectric constant and ability to dissolve electrolytes. For similar reasons it is a popular solvent in cyclic voltammetry.Industrially, it is used as a solvent for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and photographic film.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
1. Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking;
2. Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves;
3. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible);
4. Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection;
5. Take off immediately all contaminated clothing;
6. Wear suitable protective clothing;

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI=1S/C2H3N/c1-2-3/h1H3;
(2)InChIKey=WEVYAHXRMPXWCK-UHFFFAOYSA-N;
(3)SmilesC(C)#N;

 The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LC50 inhalation 18gm/m3 (18000mg/m3)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 16, 1982.
cat LD50 oral 200mg/kg (200mg/kg)   Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. Vol. 19, Pg. 225, 1969.
child TDLo oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 9, Pg. 268, 1991.
dog LCLo inhalation 16000ppm/4H (16000ppm)   Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 9100mg/kg (9100mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 5, Pg. 161, 1899.
guinea pig LC50 inhalation 5655ppm/4H (5655ppm) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)

BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
guinea pig LD50 oral 177mg/kg (177mg/kg)   Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
human TCLo inhalation 160ppm/4H (160ppm) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 65, 1969.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 oral 1670mg/kg (1670mg/kg)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 39(4), Pg. 86, 1974.
man TDLo oral 64mg/kg (64mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 29, Pg. 447, 1991.
man TDLo oral 571mg/kg (571mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, Supplementun. Vol. 41, Pg. 340, 1977.
mouse LC50 inhalation 2693ppm/1H (2693ppm) LIVER: OTHER CHANGES Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 18, Pg. 991, 1981.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 175mg/kg (175mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CORNEAL DAMAGE: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 59, Pg. 589, 1981.
mouse LD50 intravenous 612mg/kg (612mg/kg)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 16, 1982.
mouse LD50 oral 269mg/kg (269mg/kg)   Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 55, Pg. 47, 1984.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 4480mg/kg (4480mg/kg)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 16, 1982.
rabbit LC50 inhalation 2828ppm/4H (2828ppm) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE

BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
rabbit LD50 oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg)   Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. Vol. 19, Pg. 225, 1969.
rabbit LD50 skin > 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg)   International Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 19, Pg. 363, 2000.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 105mg/kg (105mg/kg)   Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 36, Pg. 455, 1929.
rat LC50 inhalation 7551ppm/8H (7551ppm) BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 850mg/kg (850mg/kg)   Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
rat LD50 intravenous 1680mg/kg (1680mg/kg)   Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 634, 1959.
rat LD50 oral 2460mg/kg (2460mg/kg)   Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 3/18/1965,
rat LD50 parenteral 1100mg/kg (1100mg/kg)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 16, 1982.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 3500mg/kg (3500mg/kg)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 16, 1982.
women TDLo oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

CARDIAC: PULSE RATE INCREASE WITHOUT FALL IN BP

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Postgraduate Medical Journal. Vol. 73, Pg. 299, 1997.

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