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Benzaldehyde

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Name Benzaldehyde EINECS 202-860-4
CAS No. 100-52-7 Density 1.049 g/cm3
Solubility <0.01 g/100 mL at 19.5 °C in water Melting Point -26 °C
Formula C7H6O Boiling Point 178.7 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 106.13 Flash Point 62.8 °C
Transport Information UN 1990 9/PG 3 Appearance colorless liquid
Safety 24 Risk Codes 22
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 100-52-7 (Benzaldehyde) Hazard Symbols HarmfulXn
Synonyms

Benzaldehyde (natural);Artificial essential oil of almond;Oil Of bitter almond;Benzenecarbonal;Benzaldehyde (NF);Artificial Almond Oil;Benzoic aldehyde;Benzadehyde;Phenylmethanal;Benzenecarboxaldehyde;Benzene carbaldehyde;Benzene carboxaldehyde;Synthetic oil of bitter almond;Bitter almond oil, synthetic;Benzenemethylal;benzanoaldehyde;Benzaldehyde , Natural;Natural Benzaldehyde;Benzaldehyde nat.;Benzal dehyde;Benzenecarbaldehyde;

 

Specification

Benzaldehyde(CAS NO.100-52-7)is slightly soluble in water but is miscible in all proportions with alcohol or ether. On standing in air, benzaldehyde oxidizes readily to benzoic acid. Benzaldehyde (CAS NO.100-52-7) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. It is the simplest representative of the aromatic aldehydes and one of the most industrially used members of this family of compounds.

Physical properties about Benzaldehyde are: (1)ACD/LogP: 1.452; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 1.45; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 1.45; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 7.48 ; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 7.48; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 146.93; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 146.93; (8)#H bond acceptors: 1; (9)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 1; (10)Index of Refraction: 1.567; (11)Molar Refractivity: 33.006 cm3; (12)Molar Volume: 101.099 cm3; (13)Polarizability: 13.084 10-24cm3; (14)Surface Tension: 38.8059997558594 dyne/cm; (15)Density: 1.05 g/cm3; (16)Flash Point: 62.778 °C; (17)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 41.504 kJ/mol; (18)Boiling Point: 178.749 °C at 760 mmHg; (19)Vapour Pressure: 0.973999977111816 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Benzaldehyde: Commercially, Benzaldehyde may be produced

(1) By heating benzal chloride (C6H5CHCl2) with calcium hydroxide:
C6H5CHCl2 + Ca(OH)2 → C6H5CHO + CaO + 2HCl
(2) By heating calcium benzoate and calcium formate:
(C6H5COO)2Ca + (HCOO)2Ca → 2C6H5CHO + 2CaCO3
(3) By boiling glucoside amygdalin of bitter almonds with a dilute acid.

Benzaldehyde is manufactured in two grades, technical and refined. The technical grade is largely used as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals, such as benzyl benzoate, cinnamic aldehyde, and dyes.

Most of the technical grade is made by direct vapor-phase oxidation of toluene, although some is made by chlorinating toluene to benzal chloride, followed by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. For perfume and flavoring use, the refined, chlorine-free grade is required, which is economically produced by the direct vapor-phase oxidation of toluene with air at 500 ℃.
C6H5CH3 + [O] → C6H5CH=O

It is claimed that a catalyst mixture of 93% uranium oxide and 7% molybdenum oxide gives relatively high yields. The oxidation is sometimes carried out in the liquid phase by using manganese dioxide/sulfuric acid at 40 ℃.

Uses of Benzaldehyde: Benzaldehyde is used as a flavoring material, in the production of cinnamic acid, in the manufacture of malachite green dye, as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, and as an intermediate in chemical syntheses.While benzaldehyde is commonly used as a commercial food flavorant (almond flavor) or industrial solvent, it is used chiefly in the synthesis of other organic compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals to plastic additives. Benzaldehyde is also an important intermediate for the processing of perfume and flavoring compounds and in the preparation of certain aniline dyes.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI=1S/C7H6O/c8-6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-6H;
(2)InChIKey=HUMNYLRZRPPJDN-UHFFFAOYSA-N;
(3)Smilesc1(ccccc1)C=O;

The toxiciy data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LD50 oral 1gm/kg (1000mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME INCREASED

GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM SMALL INTESTINE

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 327, 1964.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 oral 2020mg/kg (2020mg/kg)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 39(4), Pg. 86, 1974.
mouse LC inhalation > 500mg/m3 (500mg/m3) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CONJUNCTIVE IRRITATION: EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 18(11), Pg. 40, 1974.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 9mg/kg (9mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 9, Pg. 99, 1976.
 
mouse LD50 oral 28mg/kg (28mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 9, Pg. 99, 1976.
 
rabbit LD50 subcutaneous 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 14, Pg. 693, 1976.
rat LC inhalation > 500mg/m3 (500mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: CONJUNCTIVE IRRITATION: EYE
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 18(11), Pg. 40, 1974.
rat LD50 oral 1300mg/kg (1300mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 327, 1964.
rat LDLo subcutaneous 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 27, Pg. 163, 1922.

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