- Preparation of 1,2,3-Benzotriazole
In a 1-l. beaker are placed 108 g. (1 mole) of o-phenylenediamine, 120 g. (115 ml., 2 moles) of glacial acetic acid, and 300 ml. of water. By warming the mixture slightly a clear solution is obtained. The beaker is placed in ice water, and the contents are cooled to 5°. As soon as this temperature is reached, a cold solution of 75 g. (1.09 moles) of sodium nitrite in 120 ml. of water is added all at once, the mixture being stirred with a glass rod or by a slow mechanical stirrer. The reaction mixture turns dark green, and the temperature rises rapidly to 70–80°. The color of the solution changes to a clear orange-red. The beaker is now removed from the cooling bath, and the contents are allowed to stand for 1 hour; as the solution cools, the benzotriazole separates as an oil. The beaker is then packed in ice, and the mixture is stirred until it sets to a solid mass. After being kept cold for 3 hours, the solid is collected on a Büchner funnel, washed with 200 ml. of ice water, and sucked as dry as possible under a rubber dam. The tan-colored product, after drying at 45–50° overnight, weighs 110–116 g.
The crude benzotriazole is placed in a 200-ml. modified Claisen flask and distilled under reduced pressure. The yield of white solid (yellow cast) boiling at 201–204° at 15 mm. or 156–159° at 2 mm. is 92–99 g. The product in the receiver is melted over a luminous flame and poured into 250 ml. of benzene. The clear solution is stirred until crystallization sets in; after being chilled for 2 hours, the product is filtered on a Büchner funnel. The colorless benzotriazole weighs 90–97 g. (75–81%) and melts at 96–97°.
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