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Nitrous oxide

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Nitrous oxide

EINECS 233-032-0
CAS No. 10024-97-2 Density 1.469 g/cm3
Solubility Melting Point -91 °C(lit.)
Formula N2O Boiling Point -88 °C(lit.)
Molecular Weight 44.02 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1070 2.2 Appearance Colourless gas with sweetish odour
Safety 38 Risk Codes 8
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 10024-97-2 (Nitrogen oxide (N2O)) Hazard Symbols OxidizingO
Synonyms

Dinitrogenmonoxide;Dinitrogen oxide;Dinitrogen oxide (N2O);Factitious air;Hyponitrousacid anhydride;Laughing gas;Nitrous oxide;R 744A;? Nitrous oxide;

 

Nitrous oxide Chemical Properties


IUPAC Name: Nitrous oxide
Molecular formula: N2O
Molar mass: 44.01
EINECS: 233-032-0
Appearance: colorless gas 
Index of Refraction: 1.469
Molar Refractivity: 8.35 cm3
Molar Volume: 29.9 cm3
Surface Tension: 70.7 dyne/cm
Density: 1.46 g/cm3
Melting point: -90.86 °C (182.29 K)
Boiling point: -88.48 °C (184.67 K)
Solubility in water: 0.15 g/100 ml (15 °C) 
Stability: Oxidant, strongly supports combustion. May react violently with some materials. Thermal decomposition yields toxic products. Incompatible with aluminium, boron oxides, hydrazine, strong reducing agents.
log P: 0.35
Vapor pressure: 5150 kPa (20 °C)
Classification Code of Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2): Analgesics; Analgesics, non-narcotic; Anesthetic [inhalation]; Anesthetics; Anesthetics, General; Anesthetics, inhalation; Central Nervous System Agents; Central Nervous System Depressants; Human Data; Mutation data; Peripheral Nervous System Agents; Reproductive Effect; Sensory System Agents; Tumor data

Nitrous oxide History

In the year 1775, Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2) was first synthesized by English chemist and natural philosopher Joseph Priestley,who called it phlogisticated nitrous air. Priestley describes the preparation of "nitrous air diminished" by heating iron filings dampened with nitric acid in Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1775).
Humphry Davy in the 1790s tested the gas on himself and some of his friends, including the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They realized that Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2) considerably dulled the sensation of pain, even if the inhaler were still semi-conscious. After it was publicized extensively by Gardner Quincy Colton in the United States in the 1840s, it came into use as an anaesthetic, particularly by dentists, who do not typically have access to the services of an anesthesiologist and who may benefit from a patient who can respond to verbal commands.

Nitrous oxide Uses

 Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2) is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is also used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines.

Nitrous oxide Production

Nitrous oxide(10024-97-2) is manufactured by heating very pure ammonium nitrate to 200 to 260 °C in aluminum retorts,
             NH4NO3 → N2O + 2H2
It is purified by treatment with caustic to remove nitric acid and with dichromate to remove nitric oxide.

Nitrous oxide Toxicity Data With Reference

1.    

sln-dmg-ihl 99 pph/6M-C

    ENVRAL    Environmental Research. 7 (1974),286.
2.    

dni-rat-ihl 75,000 ppm/24H AACRAT 62,738,83

3.    

ihl-hmn TDLo:24 mg/kg/2H:CNS,CVS,MET

    BJANAD    British Journal of Anesthesia. 35 (1963),631.
4.    

ihl-rat LC50:160 mg/m3/6H

    GISAAA    Gigiena i Sanitariya. 50 (4)(1985),89.
5.    

ihl-rat TCLo:30 mg/m3/6H/61D-I

    GISAAA    Gigiena i Sanitariya. 50 (4)(1985),89.
6.    

ihl-rat TCLo:14 mg/m3/6H/17W-I

    GISAAA    Gigiena i Sanitariya. 50 (4)(1985),89.
7.    

ihl-mus TCLo:50 ppm/6H/13W-I

    TXCYAC    Toxicology. 6 (1990),57.

 

Nitrous oxide Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

Nitrous oxide Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: general anesthetic, decreased pulse rate without blood pressure fall, and body temperature decrease. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. An asphyxiant. Does not burn but is flammable by chemical reaction and supports combustion. Moderate explosion hazard; it can form an explosive mixture with air. Violent reaction with Al, B, hydrazine, LiH, LiC6H5, PH3, Na, tungsten carbide. Also self-explodes at high temperatures.
Hazard Codes:OxidizingO
Risk Statements: 8
R8: Contact with combustible material may cause fire
Safety Statements: 38
S38: In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment
F: 4.5-31: Do not heat over 50 °C. Do not puncture.
RIDADR: UN 1070 2.2
WGK Germany: 1
HazardClass: 2.2
RTECS: QX1350000

Nitrous oxide Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: OSHA PEL (Shipyard): Simple asphyxiant-inert gas and vapor
ACGIH TLV: 50 ppm; Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
DFG MAK: 100 ppm (180 mg/m3)
NIOSH REL: (Waste Anesthetic Gases and Vapors) TWA 25 ppm
DOT Classification:  2.2; Label: Nonflammable Gas

Nitrous oxide Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Nitrous Oxide (Field-Readable), 6600.

Nitrous oxide Specification

 Nitrous oxide (CAS NO.10024-97-2), its Synonyms are Dinitrogen monoxide ; Dinitrogen oxide ; Hyponitrous acid anhydride ; Laughing gas ; Nitrogen hypoxide ; Nitrogen monoxide ; Nitrous oxide, compressed ; Nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid ; Oxido nitroso . It is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor and taste.

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