|Type:Non-Metal, Nitrogen group||Atomic weight:30.97376|
|Density @ 293 K:1.82 g/cm3||Atomic volume:17.0 cm3/mol|
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, preparing it from urine, which naturally contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates. The name comes from the Greek word 'phosphoros', meaning bringer of light.
|State (s, l, g):solid|
|Melting point:317.3 K (44.2 °C)||Boiling point:553.7 K (280.5 °C)|
|Specific heat capacity:0.77 J g-1 K-1||Heat of atomization:315 kJ mol-1|
|Heat of fusion: 0.657 kJ mol-1||Heat of vaporization :12.129 kJ mol-1|
|1st ionization energy:1011.7 kJ mol-1||2nd ionization energy:1903.2 kJ mol-1|
|3rd ionization energy:2911.9 kJ mol-1||Electron affinity:72.07 kJ mol-1|
|Shells:2,8,5||Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p3|
|Minimum oxidation number:-3||Maximum oxidation number:5|
|Min. common oxidation no.:-3||Max. common oxidation no.:5|
|Electronegativity (Pauling Scale):2.19||Polarizability volume:3.6 Å3|
|Structure:special P4 tetrahedral arrangement (white phosphorus)||Color:pale yellow|
White phosphorus is highly toxic. Skin contact can result in severe burns.
White phosphorus is a highly reactive, waxy, white-yellow, transparent solid with acrid fumes. It emits a weak green glow (luminescence) in the presence of oxygen. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide. White phosphorus ignites spontaneously in air, burning to the pentoxide (P4O10).
Phosphorus is a vital plant nutrient and its main use - via phospate compounds - is in the production of fertilizers. Just as there are biological carbon and nitrogen cycles, there is also a phosphorus cycle.
|Reaction with air:vigorous, ⇒ P4O20 ignites||Reaction with 6 M HCl:none|
|Reaction with 15 M HNO3:mild, ⇒ NOx,||Reaction with 6 M NaOH:mild, ⇒ PH3 (phosphine) may ignite|
|Oxide(s):P4O10, P4O6||Chloride(s):PCl3, PCl5, P2Cl4|
|Hydride(s):PH3, P2H4 + more|
|Atomic radius:100 pm||Ionic radius (1+ ion): pm|
|Ionic radius (2+ ion): pm||Ionic radius (3+ ion):58 pm|
|Ionic radius (2- ion): pm||Ionic radius (1- ion): pm|
|Thermal conductivity:0.24 W m-1 K-1||Electrical conductivity:1.0 x 10-11 S cm-1|
|Abundance earth's crust:1,050 parts per million by weight, 730 parts per million by moles|
|Abundance solar system:7 parts per million by weight, 300 parts per billion by moles|
|Cost, pure:$30 per 100g|
|Cost, bulk:$ per 100g|
Phosphorus does not occur as a free element in nature, but it is found in many different minerals. It is produced commercially from calcium phosphate (phosphate rock). Calcium phosphate is heated in a furnace with silica and carbon to produce vaporized tetraphosphorus, which is then condensed into phosphorus as a white powder under water to prevent oxidation.
Phosphorus has 18 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 26 to 43. Of these only one is stable 31P.