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1,2-Dimethylbenzene

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Name

1,2-Dimethylbenzene

EINECS 202-422-2
CAS No. 95-47-6 Density 0.87 g/cm3
PSA 0.00000 LogP 2.30340
Solubility miscible with ethanol, ether, acetone and benzene, insoluble in water Melting Point -26--23 °C
Formula C8H10 Boiling Point 145.949 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 106.167 Flash Point 28.882 °C
Transport Information UN 1307 3/PG 3 Appearance colourless liquid
Safety 25-45-36/37-16-7 Risk Codes 10-20/21-38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 95-47-6 (1,2-Dimethylbenzene) Hazard Symbols HarmfulXn,ToxicT,FlammableF
Synonyms

o-Xylene;o-Xylene(8CI);1,2-Xylene;2-Methyltoluene;3,4-Dimethylbenzene;NSC 60920;Orthoxylene;o-Dimethylbenzene;o-Methyltoluene;o-Xylol;ortho-Xylene;

Article Data 469

1,2-Dimethylbenzene Synthetic route

methyl(o-tolyl)(1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene)palladium*(tetrahydrofuran)

13991-08-7

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene

A

85318-49-6

bis(1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene)palladium

B

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In benzene-d6 under N2; in NMR tube; react. of Pd complex and ligand (excess) in benzene-d6 at 40 for 2 h or at 90°C for < 10 min; monitored by (1)H NMR spectra;A n/a
B 99%
89-95-2

2-methyl-benzyl alcohol

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium dichloride In methanol at 40℃; for 18h; Inert atmosphere; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;99%
With 2,4,6-trimethyl-pyridine; 4,4'-dimethoxyphenyl disulfide; iridium(lll) bis[2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-5-methylpyridine-N,C20]-4,40-di-tert-butyl-2,20-bipyridine hexafluorophosphate; triphenylphosphine In toluene for 24h; Irradiation;66 %Chromat.
552-45-4

1-chloromethyl-2-methylbenzene

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium dichloride In methanol at 40℃; for 1h; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;99%
2808-75-5, 58396-30-8

2-methyl-1-methylenecyclohexane

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With n-butyllithium; potassium 2-methylbutan-2-olate Mechanism; 1) r.t., 16 h, 2) reflux, 6 h; further reagent: D2O;97%
5973-71-7

3,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde

A

95-47-6

o-xylene

B

95-63-6

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With palladium/alumina; hydrogen In hexane at 325℃; Flow reactor; Green chemistry;A 96.2%
B 3.8%
With hydrogen In hexane at 325℃; Flow reactor; Green chemistry;A 15.9%
B 84.2%
55262-10-7

1,2-dimethyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorosulfonic acid In dichloromethane at 0℃; for 0.166667h;95%
529-19-1

2-Methylbenzonitrile

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; aluminum oxide; nickel at 150℃; under 760 Torr; various Nitriles;92%
With nickel-copper at 240℃; Hydrogenation;
615-60-1

4-chloro-1,2-dimethylbenzene

608-23-1

3-chloro-o-xylene

95-47-6

o-xylene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; 5%-palladium/activated carbon at 290 - 320℃; for 1h;90%
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

612-14-6

phthalyl alcohol

A

4385-35-7

isochroman-3-one

B

95-47-6

o-xylene

C

644-36-0

o-methylphenylacetic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen iodide; tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium(0) In acetone at 90℃; under 68400 Torr; for 42h; Carbonylation; reduction;A 88%
B n/a
C 9%
With hydrogen iodide; tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium(0) In 1,4-dioxane at 120℃; under 68400 Torr; for 42h; Carbonylation; reduction;A 13%
B n/a
C 52%
7397-06-0

4-t-butyl-o-xylene

A

766-39-2

2,3-Dimethylmaleic anhydride

B

32703-79-0

4-tert-butylphthalic anhydride

C

74186-27-9

6-(tert-butyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one

D

95-47-6

o-xylene

E

4-tert-butyl-phthalaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen; phosphorus; titanium; oxides of V; aluminium at 345℃; for 0.000119444h; Product distribution; oth. temperature, oth. time, gas phase;A 3%
B 83%
C 1.8%
D n/a
E n/a

1,2-Dimethylbenzene Consensus Reports

Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

1,2-Dimethylbenzene Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 100 ppm; STEL 150 ppm
ACGIH TLV: TWA 100 ppm; STEL 150 ppm; BEI: methyl hippuric acids in urine at end of shift 1.5 g/g creatinine; Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
NIOSH REL: (Xylene) TWA 100 ppm; CL 200 ppm/10M
DOT Classification:  3; Label: Flammable Liquid

1,2-Dimethylbenzene Specification

1,2-Dimethylbenzene, also known o-Xylene, is colourless, flammable liquid with aromatic smell. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon, based on benzene with two methyl substituents bonded to adjacent carbon atoms in the aromatic ring (the ortho configuration). What's more, 1,2-Dimethylbenzene is miscible with ethanol, ether, acetone and benzene, insoluble in water.

Preparation: 1,2-Dimethylbenzene was mainly obtained from coal tar originally, but now the majority of domestic and overseas extract this product from oil catalytic reforming and aromatics thermal cracking. As the structure of 1,2-Dimethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene is very similar, their physical parameters vary little. In industry, the separation of 1,2-Dimethylbenzene uses superfractionation. The rectification requires about 150 tower plates and reflux ratio 5-8 and consumes more energy.

Use industrial 1,2-dimethylbenzene as raw material. First, use industrial concentrated sulfuric acid to wash to acid layer colorless. Then wash the mixture with 10% sodium hydroxide solution and water to be qualified. After the separation of water layer, dry with anhydrous calcium chloride. And then rectify until distillate clear. Finally, collecting the midbarrel, the product is pure.

Uses: 1,2-Dimethylbenzene is mainly used as chemical raw material and solvent. It can be used in the production of phthalic anhydride, phthalic nitrile, dimethyl phenol, dimethylaniline, dyes, pesticide, drug (such as vitamin) and so on. It is also used as aviation gasoline additive. In addition, 1,2-Dimethylbenzene is used in organic synthesis. For example: it can react with benzoyl chloride to get 3,4-dimethyl-benzophenone. This reaction which is a kind of Friedel-Crafts acylation needs reagent BiCl3 at temperature of 120 °C. The reaction time is 12 hours. The yield is 93%.

1,2-Dimethylbenzene can react with benzoyl chloride to get 3,4-dimethyl-benzophenone

Safty: 1,2-Dimethylbenzene is harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin. It is specially irritating to skin. And people also should avoid contact with eyes. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)

Structure Descriptors:
1. Smiles:c1(c(cccc1)C)C
2. InChI:InChI=1/C8H10/c1-7-5-3-4-6-8(7)2/h3-6H,1-2H3

Toxicity:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
human LCLo inhalation 6125ppm/12H (6125ppm)   Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 22, Pg. 883, 1980.
mammal (species unspecified) LDLo intraperitoneal 1500mg/kg (1500mg/kg)   Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. Vol. 46, Pg. 95, 1938.
mammal (species unspecified) LDLo subcutaneous 2500mg/kg (2500mg/kg)   Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. Vol. 46, Pg. 95, 1938.
mouse LCLo inhalation 30gm/m3 (30000mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 143, Pg. 223, 1929.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 1550uL/kg (1.55mL/kg)   Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 58, Pg. 106, 1985.
rat LCLo inhalation 6125ppm/12H (6125ppm)   Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. Vol. 46, Pg. 95, 1938.
rat LDLo oral 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg)   Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 22, Pg. 883, 1980.

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