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Cas Database

513-85-9

513-85-9

Identification

  • Product Name:2,3-Butanediol

  • CAS Number: 513-85-9

  • EINECS:208-173-6

  • Molecular Weight:90.1222

  • Molecular Formula: C4H10O2

  • HS Code:29053980

  • Mol File:513-85-9.mol

Synonyms:2,3-Butyleneglycol;2,3-Dihydroxybutane;Dimethylethylene glycol;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Signal Word:No signal word.

  • Hazard Statement:none

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician. In case of skin contact Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician. In case of eye contact Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician. If swallowed Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician. Absorption, Distribution and ExcretionIn a controlled experiment 15 (79%) of 19 severely alcoholic men but only 1 of 22 controls had a serum concentration of greater than or equal to 5 mumol/l 2,3-butanediol after ingestion of distilled spirits.

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided. Pick up and arrange disposal. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Store in cool place. Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesBiological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 119 Articles be found

Senkus

, p. 913,914 (1946)

Radical-regulating and antiviral properties of ascorbic acid and its derivatives

Brinkevich, Sviatoslav D.,Boreko, Eugene I.,Savinova, Olga V.,Pavlova, Natalia I.,Shadyro, Oleg I.

, p. 2424 - 2427 (2012)

The ability of ascorbic acid and a number of its derivatives to suppress replication of Herpes simplex virus type I was investigated in human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. In parallel, interaction of the test compounds with carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals formed on radiolysis of hydroxyl-containing organic compounds was studied using the steady state radiolysis method. It has been shown that 2-O-glycoside of ascorbic acid, displaying marked antiviral properties against Herpes simplex virus type I, is also capable of inhibiting fragmentation and recombination reactions of α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals while not affecting processes involving oxygen-centered radicals.

Ghanayem,Swann

, p. 1847 (1962)

The effects of ascorbic acid on homolytic processes involving α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals

Brinkevich,Shadyro

, p. 6448 - 6450 (2008)

Effects of ascorbic acid and 5,6-O-isopropylidene-2,3-O-dimethylascorbic acid on final product formation in radiolysis of ethanol, aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, α-methylglycoside, maltose, α-glycerophosphate, and α-glucose phosphate were studied. It was found that ascorbic acid is able to suppress reactions involving various α-hydroxyl-containing carbon-centered radicals and depending on the experimental conditions can either oxidize or reduce α-hydroxyethyl radicals.

Reactions of cyclopentanone, γ-butyrolactone, and their derivatives with α-hydroxyethyl radicals

Brinkevich,Reztsov,Shadyro

, p. 303 - 309 (2014)

The interaction of cyclopentanone, 2-cyclopentenone, 1,3-cyclopentanedione, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione, γ-butyrolactone, 2(5H)-furanone, ascorbic acid, and 5,6-O-isopropylidenyl-2-3-O-dimethylascorbic acid with α-hydroxyethyl radicals (α-HER) generated during the radiolysis of deaerated ethanol has been studied in the continuous irradiation mode. The test compounds, except γ-butyrolactone, oxidize α-HER. 2(5H)-Furanone and 2-cyclopentenone give hydroxyethylation products via the free-radical chain mechanism. In contrast to 2(5H)-furanone and 2-cyclopentenone, ascorbic and 5,6-O-isopropylidenyl-2,3-O-dimethyl-L-ascorbic acids are weaker oxidants for α-HER and attach these radicals at the multiple carbon-carbon bonds.

Effects of different techniques of malolactic fermentation induction on diacetyl metabolism and biosynthesis of selected aromatic esters in cool- climate grape wines

Lasik-Kurdys, Ma?gorzata,Majcher, Ma?gorzata,Nowak, Jacek

, (2018)

Thr effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines were examined. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced using various malolactic fermentation induction techniques: Coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous process. Volatile compounds (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, and selected ethyl fatty acid esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with a multidimensional gas chromatograph-GC × GC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N2) modulator. Sensory evaluation of the wines was also performed. It was found that the fermentation-derived metabolites studied were affected by the malolactic bacteria inoculation regime. Quantitatively, ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, and ethyl acetate dominated as esters with the largest increase in content. The total concentration of ethyl esters was highest for the coinoculation technique, while the highest concentration of diacetyl was noted for the spontaneous technique. Controlled malolactic fermentation, especially using the coinoculation technique, can be proposed as a safe and efficient enological practice for producing quality cool-climate grape wines enriched with fruity, fresh, and floral aromas.

Particle size and surface chemistry in photoelectrochemical reactions at semiconductor particles

Müller,Majoni,Memming,Meissner

, p. 2501 - 2507 (1997)

In the present paper reactions at small and large ZnS particles have been investigated. It has been shown that ethanol is selectively oxidized at large (micrometer) particles to acetaldehyde without side products by a "two hole" process. In the case of nanometer particles the primarily formed α-hydroxyethyl radicals in a "one hole" process undergo a secondary reaction, i.e., the dimerization and disproportionation of the free radicals. It has been shown that a two hole process on nanometer particles becomes impossible because the time interval between two successive photon absorption incidents which lead to a successful hole transfer process in a 1-nm particle is much longer than the maximum lifetime of the α-hydroxyethyl radicals formed in the first step. The different mechanisms of ethanol oxidation and the influence of surface chemistry are discussed in detail.

Blom et al.

, p. 872 (1945)

Efficient production of acetoin by the newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis strain MEL09

Liu, Yongfeng,Zhang, Shuling,Yong, Yang-Chun,Ji, Zhixia,Ma, Xin,Xu, Zhenghong,Chen, Shouwen

, p. 390 - 394 (2011)

In this study, a new bacterial strain MEL09, which produces acetoin at high concentrations, was isolated from solid cultures of traditional Chinese vinegar. Based on physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as the 16S rDNA gene sequence, strain MEL09 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. To improve acetoin production by B. licheniformis MEL09, medium composition and culture conditions were optimized by varying one factor at a time and using orthogonal array tests. Under these optimized conditions, the maximum acetoin concentration achieved was 41.26 g l-1, with 41.26% glucose conversion efficiency (84.39% of theoretical glucose conversion efficiency). This increase is 84.86% over the initial condition and is, to our knowledge, the highest acetoin level ever reported using fermentation methods.

Electrosynthesis of 2,3-butanediol and methyl ethyl ketone from acetoin in flow cells

Ochoa-Gómez, José R.,Fernández-Carretero, Francisco,Río-Pérez, Francisca,García-Luis, Alberto,Roncal, Tomás,García-Suárez, Eduardo J.

, p. 164 - 177 (2019)

Acetoin could shortly become a platform molecule due to current progress in fermentation technology, the megatrend for shifting from an oil-based economy to the one based on biomass, the quest for green manufacturing processes and its two highly reactive carbonyl and hydroxyl moieties. In this paper, the successful electro-conversion of acetoin into two valuable chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), at a constant electrical current in an aqueous phase at room temperature using both divided and undivided 20 cm2 filter-press flow cells under experimental conditions suitable for industrial production is reported. Cathode material is the key parameter to drive the electroreduction towards one or another chemical. 2,3-BD is the major chemical produced by electrohydrogenation when low hydrogen overvoltage cathodes, such as Pt and Ni, of high surface areas obtained by PVD coating on a carbon gas diffusion layer are used, while MEK is the principal product produced by electrohydrogenolysis when high hydrogen overvoltage cathodes, such as graphite, Pb and Cd foils, are employed. 2,3-BD and MEK can be obtained, respectively, in 92.8% and 85.7% selectivities, 71.7% and 80.4% current efficiencies, with 1.21 and 1.08 kg h-1 m-2 productivities and power consumptions of 2.94 and 4.1 kWh kg-1 using undivided cells and aqueous K2HPO4 electrolysis media at pH values of 3.6 and 5.5. The reported electroconversion of acetoin is highly flexible because 2,3-BD and MEK can be produced by changing just the cathode but using the same cell, with the same electrolyte at the same current density.

Amplified Rate Acceleration by Simultaneous Up-Regulation of Multiple Active Sites in an Endo-Functionalized Porous Capsule

Kopilevich, Sivil,Müller, Achim,Weinstock, Ira A.

, p. 12740 - 12743 (2015)

Using the hydrolysis of epoxides in water as a model reaction, the effect of multiple active sites on Michaelis-Menten compliant rate accelerations in a porous capsule is demonstrated. The capsule is a water-soluble Ih-symmetry Keplerate-type complex of the form, [{MoVI6O21(H2O)6}12{MoV2O4(L)}30]42-, in which 12 pentagonal "ligands," {(MoVI)MoVI5O21(H2O)6}6-, are coordinated to 30 dimolybdenum sites, {MoV2O4L}1+ (L = an endohedrally coordinated ν2-bound carboxylate anion), resulting in 20 Mo9O9 pores. When "up-regulated" by removal of ca. one-third of the blocking ligands, L, an equal number of dimolybdenum sites are activated, and the newly freed-up space allows for encapsulation of nearly twice as many substrate guests, leading to a larger effective molarity (amplification), and an increase in the rate acceleration (kcat/kuncat) from 16,000 to an enzyme-like value of 182,800.

Properties of a 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from taiwanofungus camphorata

Ken, Chuian-Fu,Tsai, Wei-Wei,Wen, Lisa,Sheu, Dey-Chyi,Lin, Chi-Tsai

, p. 443 - 448 (2015)

2,3-Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh) plays important roles in reduction of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, an important platform chemical with many industrial applications. Here, a TcBdh cDNA (1348 bp, GenBank accession JF896462) encoding a putative Bdh was cloned from Taiwanofungus camphorata. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar to the Bdhs from other species. A 3-D structural model of TcBdh has been constructed based on the known structure of Pseudomonas putida formaldehyde dehydrogenase (PpFdh, PDB code 1KOL). To characterize the TcBdh protein, the coding region was subcloned into an expression vector pYEX-S1 and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant His6-tagged TcBdh was expressed and purified by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid Sepharose. The purified enzyme showed a single band of 49 kDa on 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Michaelis constant (KM) value of the recombinant enzyme for acetoin was 8.5 mM. The enzyme's optical pH was 6. The thermal inactivation of the enzyme showed a half-life of 5.3 min at 45°C.

Selective Photocatalytic C-C Coupling of Bioethanol into 2,3-Butanediol over Pt-Decorated Hydroxyl-Group-Tunable TiO2 Photocatalysts

Yang, Pengju,Zhao, Jianghong,Cao, Baoyue,Li, Li,Wang, Zhijian,Tian, Xuxia,Jia, Suping,Zhu, Zhenping

, p. 2384 - 2390 (2015)

2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) was synthesized through TiO2-photocatalytic C-C coupling of bioethanol synchronously with the liberation of an energy H2 molecule in an anaerobic atmosphere. It was found that the selectivity of 2,3-BD is controlled by the amount of .OH. The less the .OH, the higher the 2,3-BD selectivity. Furthermore, it was revealed that the amount of .OH increases with the increasing of the surface OH groups on TiO2 photocatalyst. The introduction of water is in favor of the C-C coupling pathway. This can be attributed to the stronger interaction between water and TiO2, which is beneficial to recovering the OH groups and promoting the desorption of .CH(OH)CH3 intermediates, thus suppressing the thermodynamically favorable overoxidation of .CH(OH)CH3 into acetaldehyde and promoting the C-C coupling into 2,3-BD. Based on the findings, the 2,3-BD selectivity was greatly enhanced from approximately 2.6 % to approximately 65 % over Degussa P25-TiO2 photocatalyst through fluorine substitution of surface OH groups.

Hydrogenation of diacetyl over composite-supported egg-shell noble metal catalysts

Carrara,Badano,Coloma-Pascual,Vera,Quiroga

, p. 1669 - 1683 (2017)

Two composite supports with a mixed inorganic-organic structure were synthesized: BTAl and UTAl. Hydrophilic-hydrophobic dual properties of the supports were suitable for preparing egg-shell-supported metal catalysts for selective hydrogenation reactions. The catalysts were characterized by ICP, XRD, OM, TEM, EPMA, XPS and TGA. Their mechanical resistance was assessed. Activity and selectivity were tested with the hydrogenation of 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) to 3-hydroxy-2-butanoneacetoin (acetoin). The same order of increasing metal particle size was found for the two tested supports: Pt +). It was rationalized that the hydrogen bond cleavage was performed on the Me° active sites, while reactant adsorption occurred on the Me+ sites. The differences in activity and selectivity between the composite catalysts were attributed to electronic effects on the different metals and to different adsorptive properties of the different polymers. The high selectivity to acetoin was attributed to the preferential adsorption of diacetyl as compared to the adsorption of acetoin. The BTAl catalysts were slightly more active and selective than the UTAl ones. This was attributed to electronic effects caused by remnant organic groups on the composite supports (urethane or biphenyl on UTAl or BTAl, respectively). Pd-BTAl was the most active and selective catalyst, a fact related to electronic effects of both palladium and the support.

-

Taub,Dorfman

, p. 4053 (1962)

-

Effects of indole and imidazole derivatives on the radiation- and peroxide-induced transformations of ethanol

Brinkevich,Sverdlov,Shadyro

, p. 12 - 20 (2013)

The interaction of indole, imidazole, and their derivatives with α-hydroxyethyl radicals has been studied by the radiation and peroxide initiation of free-radical processes. The enthalpies of H-atom addition to the multiple bonds of the test compounds, which characterize their oxidation properties, have been calculated within the framework of the density functional theory. The set of experimental and theoretically calculated data indicate that serotonin or β-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harman, and harmaline) inhibit the formation of 2,3-butanediol - the main radiolysis product of deaerated ethanol - mainly due to reduction and addition or the oxidation of α-hydroxyethyl radicals, respectively. Enhancement of oxidation properties in the above order of β-carboline alkaloids has been observed. Pyrrole, indole, melatonin, imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, and 2-mercapto-1- methylimidazole exhibit low reactivity toward α-hydroxyethyl radicals.

Lockhart

, p. 869 (1968)

Strohmaier,Lovell

, p. 721 (1946)

Direct C-C coupling of bio-ethanol into 2,3-butanediol by photochemical and photocatalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

Li, Na,Yan, Wenjun,Yang, Pengju,Zhang, Hongxia,Wang, Zhijian,Zheng, Jianfeng,Jia, Suping,Zhu, Zhenping

, p. 6029 - 6034 (2016)

Theoretically, selective C-H manipulation in ethanol can result in a direct C-C coupling synthesis of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO). However, this process is typically extremely difficult to achieve because of the high complexity of the involved chemical bonds. In this work, we determine that hydroxide radicals generated from the photolysis of H2O2 can selectively attack the α-hydrogen atom in ethanol aqueous solutions and crack the C-H bond to produce hydroxyethyl radicals, which subsequently undergo C-C coupling to form 2,3-BDO. This selective C-H breakage is determined by the reaction rate, which is primarily controlled by the local H2O2 concentration at a given irradiation intensity. At a moderate reaction rate of ethanol (37 mmol h-1), the 2,3-BDO selectivity reaching as high as 91% can be obtained. The introduction of a catalyst can further increase ethanol conversion and enhance the 2,3-BDO formation rate by controlling the reaction rate. This result provides an environment-friendly approach to convert bio-ethanol directly to 2,3-BDO and to manipulate a single bond selectively in complex bonding situations.

-

Ackerman,Basson

, p. 586 (1967)

-

Effects of α-tocopherol and related compounds on reactions involving various organic radicals

Povalishev,Polozov,Shadyro

, p. 1236 - 1239 (2006)

Effects of α-tocopherol, PMC, and a number of the respective sulfur-containing analogues on reactions involving various organic radicals were studied. The test compounds were found to interact with alkyl radicals more effectively than with peroxyl radicals. The presence of a sulfur atom in structures of the respective analogues did not produce significant effects on reactivity. Derivatives of 5-hydroxy-1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one and 6-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxathiin-2(3H)-one displayed a high reactivity toward α-hydroxyalkyl radicals.

Application of robust ketoreductase from Hansenula polymorpha for the reduction of carbonyl compounds

Petrovi?ová, Tatiana,Gyuranová, Dominika,Pl?, Michal,Myrtollari, Kamela,Smonou, Ioulia,Rebro?, Martin

, (2021/02/05)

Enzyme-catalysed asymmetric reduction of ketones is an attractive tool for the production of chiral building blocks or precursors for the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Expression of robust ketoreductase (KRED) from Hansenula polymorpha was upscaled and applied for the asymmetric reduction of 31 prochiral carbonyl compounds (aliphatic and aromatic ketones, diketones and β-keto esters) to the corresponding optically pure hydroxy compounds. Biotransformations were performed with the purified recombinant KRED together with NADP+ recycling glucose dehydrogenase (GDH, Bacillus megaterium), both overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Maximum activity of KRED for biotransformation of ethyl-2-methylacetoacetate achieved by the high cell density cultivation was 2499.7 ± 234 U g–1DCW and 8.47 ± 0.40 U·mg–1E, respectively. The KRED from Hansenula polymorpha is a very versatile enzyme with broad substrate specificity and high activity towards carbonyl substrates with various structural features. Among the 36 carbonyl substrates screened in this study, the KRED showed activity with 31, with high enantioselectivity in most cases. With several ketones, the Hansenula polymorpha KRED catalysed preferentially the formation of the (R)-secondary alcohols, which is highly valued.

C-H activations of methanol and ethanol and C-C couplings into diols by zinc-indium-sulfide under visible light

Zhang, Haikun,Xie, Shunji,Hu, Jinyuan,Wu, Xuejiao,Zhang, Qinghong,Cheng, Jun,Wang, Ye

, p. 1776 - 1779 (2020/02/20)

Herein, an environmentally friendly CoP/Zn2In2S5 catalyst is reported as a visible-light photocatalyst for the selective activation of the α-C-H bond of methanol to generate ethylene glycol with a selectivity of as high as 90%. The catalytic system also illustrates the first example of visible-light-driven dehydrogenative coupling of ethanol to 2,3-butanediol.

Energy- And cost-effective non-sterilized fermentation of 2,3-butanediol by an engineered: Klebsiella pneumoniae OU7 with an anti-microbial contamination system

Guo, Ze-Wang,Ou, Xiao-Yang,Xu, Pei,Gao, Hui-Fang,Zhang, Liao-Yuan,Zong, Min-Hua,Lou, Wen-Yong

, p. 8584 - 8593 (2020/12/31)

Microbial contamination is a serious challenge that needs to be overcome for the successful biosynthesis of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, traditional strategies such as antibiotic administration or sterilization are costly, have high energy demands, and may increase the risk of antibiotic resistance. Here, we intend to develop a robust strategy to achieve non-sterilized fermentation of 2,3-BD. Briefly, the robust strain can metabolize unconventional chemicals as essential growth nutrients, and therefore, outcompete contaminant microbes that cannot use unconventional chemicals. To this end, Klebsiella pneumoniae OU7, a robust strain, was confirmed to rapidly exploit urea and phosphite (unconventional chemicals) as the primary sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and withstand deliberate contamination in the possibly contaminated systems. Secondly, metabolic engineering, pathogenicity elimination and adaptive laboratory evolution were successively performed, endowing the best strain with an excellent fermentation performance for safe 2,3-BD production. Finally, 84.53 g L-1 of 2,3-BD was synthesized with a productivity of 1.17 g L-1 h-1 and a yield of 0.38 g g-1 under the non-sterilized system. In summary, our technique reduces labor and energy costs and simplifies the fermentation process because sterilization does not need to be performed. Thus, our work will be beneficial for the sustainable synthesis of 2,3-BD. This journal is

Method for preparing 1, 3-butanediol

-

Paragraph 0061; 0064-0066; 0076; 0077, (2020/11/22)

The invention provides a method for preparing 1, 3-butanediol. The method comprises the following steps: (1) carrying out condensation cyclization reaction on butadiene, water and an aldehyde ketone compound according to a certain material ratio in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and a catalyst A to obtain a reaction solution containing an intermediate I; and (2) mixing the reaction solution containing the intermediate I with a certain amount of water, and carrying out hydrolysis reaction in the presence of a catalyst B to obtain 1, 3-butanediol and a corresponding aldehyde ketone compound.Compared with the existing production method, the method has the advantages of accessible reaction raw materials, high reaction conversion rate, high selectivity and the like, and is suitable for industrial production.

Olefin reaction in the catalyst and the olefin production

-

Paragraph 0145-0146; 0149, (2020/10/31)

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a catalyst for obtaining an olefin in high selectivity with a vicinal diol as a raw material.SOLUTION: A catalyst for olefination reaction for use in a reaction to produce an olefin by a reaction of a polyol, having two adjacent carbon atoms each having a hydroxy group, with hydrogen comprises: a carrier; at least one oxide selected from the group consisting of oxides of the group 6 elements and oxides of the group 7 elements supported on the carrier; and at least one metal selected from the group consisting of silver, iridium, and gold supported on the carrier.SELECTED DRAWING: None

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

D-sorbitol
50-70-4

D-sorbitol

TETRAHYDROPYRANE
142-68-7

TETRAHYDROPYRANE

2-methyltetrahydrofuran
96-47-9

2-methyltetrahydrofuran

2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran
1003-38-9

2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

propan-1-ol
71-23-8

propan-1-ol

2-Methylcyclopentanone
1120-72-5

2-Methylcyclopentanone

3-methyl-cyclopentanone
1757-42-2,6195-92-2

3-methyl-cyclopentanone

propylene glycol
57-55-6,63625-56-9

propylene glycol

ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

n-hexan-3-ol
623-37-0

n-hexan-3-ol

2-methylpentan-1-ol
105-30-6

2-methylpentan-1-ol

(S)-Ethyl lactate
687-47-8

(S)-Ethyl lactate

pentan-1-ol
71-41-0

pentan-1-ol

vinyl formate
692-45-5

vinyl formate

n-hexan-2-one
591-78-6

n-hexan-2-one

n-hexan-3-one
589-38-8

n-hexan-3-one

Isopropyl acetate
108-21-4

Isopropyl acetate

3-Hydroxy-2-pentanone
3142-66-3,113919-08-7

3-Hydroxy-2-pentanone

acetic acid
64-19-7,77671-22-8

acetic acid

propionaldehyde
123-38-6

propionaldehyde

2-Pentanone
107-87-9

2-Pentanone

propionic acid
802294-64-0,79-09-4

propionic acid

1-Hydroxy-2-butanone
5077-67-8

1-Hydroxy-2-butanone

2,5-hexanedione
110-13-4

2,5-hexanedione

isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0,8013-70-5

isopropyl alcohol

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

pentan-3-one
96-22-0

pentan-3-one

isobutyric Acid
79-31-2

isobutyric Acid

butanone
78-93-3

butanone

iso-butanol
78-92-2,15892-23-6

iso-butanol

hexanoic acid
142-62-1

hexanoic acid

Isosorbide
652-67-5

Isosorbide

butyric acid
107-92-6

butyric acid

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

hexan-1-ol
111-27-3

hexan-1-ol

valeric acid
109-52-4

valeric acid

Conditions
Conditions Yield
platinum on carbon; In water; for 3h; Direct aqueous phase reforming;
trans-but-2-enyl chloride
4894-61-5

trans-but-2-enyl chloride

2-hydroxy-3-butene
598-32-3

2-hydroxy-3-butene

1.3-butanediol
18826-95-4,107-88-0

1.3-butanediol

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol
6117-91-5,542-72-3

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With sodium hydroxide; sodium tetrahydroborate; mercury(II) diacetate; Product distribution; 1.) oxymercuration; 2.) demercuration;
7 % Chromat.
9 % Chromat.
31 % Chromat.
21 % Chromat.
crotyl acetate
628-08-0

crotyl acetate

2-hydroxy-3-butene
598-32-3

2-hydroxy-3-butene

1.3-butanediol
18826-95-4,107-88-0

1.3-butanediol

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol
6117-91-5,542-72-3

(E/Z)-2-buten-1-ol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

1,2-dihydroxybutane
584-03-2

1,2-dihydroxybutane

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With sodium hydroxide; sodium tetrahydroborate; mercury(II) diacetate; In tetrahydrofuran; water; Product distribution; Mechanism; 1) 30 min, 2) ca. 0.5 h; investigation of other reduction conditions;
2,3-cis-epoxybutane
925669-95-0

2,3-cis-epoxybutane

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With methane; water; oxygen; at 37.5 ℃; Product distribution; Mechanism; Irradiation; gas-phase reaction (atmospheric pressure), γ-radiolysis; stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution on the positively charged intermediate;
2,3-trans-epoxybutane
21490-63-1

2,3-trans-epoxybutane

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With methane; water; oxygen; at 37.5 ℃; Product distribution; Mechanism; Irradiation; gas-phase reaction (atmospheric pressure), γ-radiolysis; stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution on the positively charged intermediate;
erythro-3-fluorobutan-2-ol
1813-13-4,6133-82-0,6228-94-0,139755-61-6

erythro-3-fluorobutan-2-ol

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2,3-cis-epoxybutane
925669-95-0

2,3-cis-epoxybutane

2,3-trans-epoxybutane
21490-63-1

2,3-trans-epoxybutane

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With methane; water; oxygen; at 37.5 ℃; Product distribution; Mechanism; Irradiation; gas-phase reaction (atmospheric pressure), γ-radiolysis; stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution on the positively charged intermediate;
d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2,3-cis-epoxybutane
925669-95-0

2,3-cis-epoxybutane

2,3-trans-epoxybutane
21490-63-1

2,3-trans-epoxybutane

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With methane; water; oxygen; at 37.5 ℃; Product distribution; Mechanism; Irradiation; gas-phase reaction (atmospheric pressure), γ-radiolysis; stereochemistry of nucleophilic substitution on the positively charged intermediate;
3-hydroxy-2-butanon
513-86-0,52217-02-4,51555-24-9

3-hydroxy-2-butanon

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With lithium aluminium tetrahydride; In diethyl ether; for 12h; Product distribution; Ambient temperature;
dimethylglyoxal
431-03-8

dimethylglyoxal

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
With lithium aluminium tetrahydride; In diethyl ether; for 12h; Mechanism; Product distribution; Ambient temperature;
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

d,l-2,3-butanediol
6982-25-8

d,l-2,3-butanediol

acetic acid
64-19-7,77671-22-8

acetic acid

2.3-butanediol
513-85-9

2.3-butanediol

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 60 - 70 ℃; for 18h; Yield given; Irradiation; Hg high pressure lamp;
8 % Turnov.
at 60 - 70 ℃; for 18h; Product distribution; Irradiation; different light sources;
at 60 - 70 ℃; for 18h; Yield given. Yields of byproduct given; Irradiation; Hg high pressure lamp;

Global suppliers and manufacturers

Global( 128) Suppliers
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  • Simagchem Corporation
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:+86-592-2680277
  • Emails:sale@simagchem.com
  • Main Products:110
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • EAST CHEMSOURCES LIMITED
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-532-81906761
  • Emails:josen@eastchem-cn.com
  • Main Products:97
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • COLORCOM LTD.
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:+86-571-89007001
  • Emails:medkem@medkem.cn
  • Main Products:1
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Chemwill Asia Co., Ltd.
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:021-51086038
  • Emails:sales@chemwill.com
  • Main Products:56
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Shaanxi BLOOM TECH Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:+86-29-86470566
  • Emails:sales@bloomtechz.com
  • Main Products:79
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Shanghai Upbio Tech Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Lab/Research institutions
  • Contact Tel:+86-21-52196435
  • Emails:upbiocn@hotmail.com
  • Main Products:88
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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