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Cas Database

7726-95-6

7726-95-6

Identification

  • Product Name:Bromine

  • CAS Number: 7726-95-6

  • EINECS:231-778-1

  • Molecular Weight:159.808

  • Molecular Formula: Br2

  • HS Code:2801302000

  • Mol File:7726-95-6.mol

Synonyms:EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 008701;Br2;Broom [Dutch];Br-;Brome [French];Bromine solution;Bromo [Italian];Bromo [Spanish];Bromo group;Brom [German];dibromine;Brom;Bromination catalysts Bromination kinetics See also Bromine;Bromine or bromine solutions [UN1744] [Corrosive];molecular bromine;BrominationSee also related:;Industrial Bromine(Br2);Bromine, Reagent;Bromine7726-95-6;ambroxol Su;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):VeryT+,CorrosiveC,DangerousN

  • Hazard Codes: T+:Very toxic;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damageH330 Fatal if inhaled H400 Very toxic to aquatic life

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Half-upright position. Artificial respiration may be needed. Refer immediately for medical attention. See Notes. In case of skin contact First rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, then remove contaminated clothes and rinse again. Put clothes in sealable container. Refer immediately for medical attention. In case of eye contact Rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible). Refer immediately for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Refer immediately for medical attention. Inhalation exposure to 11-23 mg/m3 produces severe choking. 30-60 mg/m3 is extremely dangerous. 200 mg/m3 is fatal in a short time. Vapors can cause acute as well as chronic poisoning. It has cumulative properties. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Poisoning is due to the corrosive action on the gastrointestinal tract. Nervous, circulatory and renal disturbances occur after ingestion. Ingestion of liquid can cause death due to circulatory collapse and asphyxiation from swelling of the respiratory tract. The lowest oral lethal dose reported for humans is 14 mg/kg. The lowest lethal inhalation concentration reported for humans is 1000 ppm. (EPA, 1998) Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Bromine, methyl bromide, and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire. (Material itself does not burn or burns with difficulty). Use water in flooding quantities as fog. Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water. Apply water from as far a distance as possible. Use water spray to knock-down vapors. Will cause ignition of organic materials spontaneous ignition possible when combined with potassium, phosphorus and tin and a wide variety of other chemicals. It reacts explosively with acetylene, acrylonitrile, ammonia, dimethyl formamide, ethyl phosphine, hydrogen, isobutyrophenone, nickel carbonyl, nitrogen triiodide, ozone, oxygen difluoride, phosphorus, potassium, silver azide, sodium and sodium carbide. When heated it emits highly toxic fumes and will react with water or steam to product toxic and corrosive fumes. Bromine is incompatible with a wide variety of materials including alkali hydroxides; arsenites; ferrous, mercurous salts; hypophosphites and other oxidizable substances. Vaporizes rapidly at room temperature. (EPA, 1998) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Evacuate danger area! Consult an expert! Personal protection: gas-tight chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus. Ventilation. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Remove vapour with fine water spray. Collect leaking liquid in sealable containers. Absorb remaining liquid in dry sand or inert absorbent. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations. 1) VENTILATE AREA OF SPILL OR LEAK. 2) COLLECT FOR RECLAMATION OR ABSORB IN VERMICULITE, DRY SAND, EARTH, OR A SIMILAR MATERIAL OR POUR SODIUM THIOSULFATE OR LIME WATER OVER SMALL SPILLS.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Provision to contain effluent from fire extinguishing. Separated from food and feedstuffs. See Chemical Dangers. Cool. Dry. Well closed. Keep in a well-ventilated room. Store only in original container. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities: Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. Containers which are opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage. Do not store in polyethylene containers. Handle and open container with care.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 10 hour Time-Weighted Average: 0.1 ppm (0.7 mg/cu m).Recommended Exposure Limit: 15 minute Short-Term Exposure Limit: 0.3 ppm (2 mg/cu m).Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 124 Articles be found

Luckey, G. W.

, p. 882 - 890 (1955)

Olsen, J. C.,Ryan, E. P.

, p. 2215 - 2218 (1932)

Oscillation in the Bromate-Bromide-Cerous System. The Simplest Chemical Oscillator

Bar-Eli, K.,Geiseler, W.

, p. 3769 - 3774 (1983)

The bistability of the cerium-bromate-bromide system in an open-flow (CSTR) system was investigated near the critical point.Near this critical point Hopf's bifurcation occurs, causing stable states to become unstable.Domains of single or three unstable steady states occur, with possible oscillations around them.A good agreement is obtained between the calculated and experimental oscillation domains on the various subspaces of constraints.This oscillator is the simplest chemical oscillator fully understood in terms of elementary reactions.

Patrin, J. C.,Weaver, J. H.

, (1993)

Koch, P. P.,Kreiss, B.

, p. 384 - 396 (1925)

Release of gas-phase halogens by photolytic generation of OH in frozen halide-nitrate solutions: An active halogen formation mechanism?

Abbatt,Oldridge,Symington,Chukalovskiy,McWhinney,Sjostedt,Cox

, p. 6527 - 6533 (2010)

To better define the mechanisms by which condensed-phase halides may be oxidized to form gas-phase halogens under polar conditions, experiments have been conducted whereby frozen solutions containing chloride (1 M), bromide (1.6 × 10-3 to 5 × 10-2 M), iodide (-5 M), and nitrate (0.01 to 1 M) have been illuminated by ultraviolet light in a continually flushed cell. Gas-phase products are quantified using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and experiments were conducted at both 248 and 263 K. Br2 was the dominant product, along with smaller yields of IBr and trace BrCl and I2. The Br2 yields were largely independent of the Br-Cl- ratio of the frozen solution, down to seawater composition. However, the yields of halogens were strongly dependent on the levels of NO3- and acidity in solution, consistent with a mechanism whereby NO3- photolysis yields OH that oxidizes the condensed-phase halides. In support, we observed the formation of gas-phase NO2, formed simultaneously with OH. Gas-phase HONO was also observed, suggesting that halide oxidation by HONO in the condensed phase may also occur to some degree. By measuring the production rate of condensed-phase OH, using benzoic acid as a radical trap, we determine that the molar yield of Br2 formation relative to OH generation is 0.6, consistent with each OH being involved in halide oxidation. These studies suggest that gas-phase halogen formation should occur simultaneously with NOx release from frozen sea ice and snow surfaces that contain sufficient halides and deposited nitrate.

Lewis, B.,Schumacher, H. -J.

, p. 129 (1930)

Harries, G. S.,Payne, D. S.

, (1958)

A new chemical oscillator with a macrocyclic copper(II) complex as catalyst and lactic acid as the substrate

Hu, Gang,Zhang, Zude

, p. 1154 - 1155 (2006)

The oscillatory features of a new type Belousov-Zhabotin-skii oscillator with a macrocyclic copper(II) complex [CuL](ClO4)2 as catalyst and lactic acid as the substrate have been reported. This complex contains the ligand 5,7,12,14-tetraethyl-7,14-dimethyl-1,4,8,11 -tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene. A tentative mechanism based on FKN has been suggested. Copyright

Jackson, C. G.

, p. 1066 - 1071 (1911)

Firestone, R. F.,Willard, J. E.

, p. 3551 - 3554 (1961)

Luckey, G. W.

, p. 791 - 796 (1953)

The Syntheses of Carbocations by Use of the Noble-Gas Oxidant, [XeOTeF 5][Sb(OTeF5)6]: The Syntheses and Characterization of the CX3+ (X = Cl, Br, OTeF 5) and CBr(OTeF5)2+ Cations and Theoretical Studies of CX3+ and BX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I, OTeF5)

Mercier, Helene P. A.,Moran, Matthew D.,Schrobilgen, Gary J.,Steinberg, Christoph,Suontamo, Reijo J.

, p. 5533 - 5548 (2004)

The CCl3+ and CBr3+ cations have been synthesized by oxidation of a halide ligand of CCl4 and CBr4 at -78 °C in SO2ClF solvent by use of [XeOTeF5][Sb(OTeF5)6]. The CBr3 + cation reacts further with BrOTeF5 to give CBr(OTeF 5)2+, C(OTeF5)3 +, and Br2. The [XeOTeF5][Sb(OTeF 5)6] salt was also found to react with BrOTeF5 in SO2ClF solvent at -78 °C to give the Br(OTeF5) 2+ cation. The CCl3+, CBr 3+, CBr(OTeF5)2+, C(OTeF5)3+, and Br(OTeF5) 2+ cations and C(OTeF5)4 have been characterized in SO2ClF solution by 13C and/or 19F NMR spectroscopy at -78 °C. The X-ray crystal structures of the CCl3+, CBr3+, and C(OTeF 5)3+ cations have been determined in [CCl 3][Sb(OTeF5)6], [CBr3][Sb(OTeF 5)6]·SO2ClF, and [C(OTeF 5)3][Sb(OTeF5)6]·3SO 2ClF at -173 °C. The CCl3+ and CBr 3+ salts were stable at room temperature, whereas the CBrn(OTeF5)3-n+ salts were stable at 0 °C for several hours. The cations were found to be trigonal planar about carbon, with the CCl3+ and CBr3 + cations showing no significant interactions between their carbon atoms and the fluorine atoms of the Sb(OTeF5)6 - anions. In constrast, the C(OTeF5)3 + cation interacts with an oxygen of each of two SO2ClF molecules by coordination along the three-fold axis of the cation. The solid-state Raman spectra of the Sb(OTeF5)6- salts of CCl3+ and CBr3+ have been obtained and assigned with the aid of electronic structure calculations. The CCl3+ cation displays a well-resolved 35Cl/37Cl isotopic pattern for the symmetric CCl 3 stretch. The energy-minimized geometries, natural charges, and natural bond orders of the CCl3+, CBr3 +, Cl3+, and C(OTeF5) 3+ cations and of the presently unknown CF 3+ cation have been calculated using HF and MP2 methods have been compared with those of the isoelectronic BX3 molecules (X = F, Cl, Br, I, and OTeF5). The 13C and 11B chemical shifts for CX3+ (X = Cl, Br, I) and BX 3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) were calculated by the GIAO method, and their trends were assessed in terms of paramagnetic contributions and spin-orbit coupling.

Masters, J. I.

, p. 611 - 613 (1969)

Maass,Hatcher

, p. 2472 (1922)

Richards, T. W.,Hoenigschmid, O.

, (1910)

van Son

, (1898)

Catalytic bromine recovery: An enabling technology for emerging alkane functionalization processes

Moser, Maximilian,Rodriguez-Garcia, Laura,Amrute, Amol P.,Perez-Ramirez, Javier

, p. 3520 - 3523 (2013)

Making a quick recovery: The widespread implementation of bromination reactions to manufacture value-added products is contingent upon the development of sustainable and cost-effective means to recycle copious amounts of HBr byproduct. We report families of heterogeneous catalysts for the full recovery of Br2 through HBr oxidation that display unprecedented low-temperature activity and stability. Copyright

Kinetic-spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid by inhibition of the hydrochloric acid-bromate reaction

Ensafi, Ali A,Rezaei,Movahedinia

, p. 2589 - 2594 (2002)

A new analytical method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruit juice and pharmaceuticals. The method is based on its inhibition effect on the reaction between hydrochloric acid and bromate. The decolourisation of Methyl Orange by the reaction products was used to monitor the reaction spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. The linearity range of the calibration graph depends on bromate concentration. The variable affecting the rate of the reaction was investigated. The method is simple, rapid, relatively sensitive and precise. The limit of detection is 7.6 × 10-6 M and calibration rang is 8 × 10-6-1.2 × 10-3 M ascorbic acid. The relative standard deviation of seven replication determinations of 8 × 10-6 and 2 × 10-5 M ascorbic acid was 2.8 and 1.7%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering substance was studied. The method was successfully applied for the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceuticals.

Oscillatory reaction of bromate-gallic acid. A calorimetric and electrometric study in aquo-organic solvent media

Biswas, Sudeshna,Mukherjee, Kallol,Basu, Samarendra Nath,Mukherjee, Dulal Chandra,Moulik, Satya Priya

, p. 575 - 592 (2001)

The oscillatory reaction between potassium bromate and gallic acid (in presence of sulfuric acid and ferroin indicator) has been calorimetrically and potentiometrically studied in binary mixtures of water and organic solvents viz. dimethyl formamide, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxan. The effects of solvent polarity, stirring condition, indicator concentration, aerial oxygen and chloride ion on the oscillatory process have been examined. The oscillatory behaviour of the reaction probed by the potentiometric method has a general agreement with the calorimetric method. An attempt has been made to determine the order of the Fe2+Fe3+ oxidation reaction. The damping coefficients of the oscillatory process in aqueous and mixed solvent media have been estimated. by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Muenchen.

Inhoffen,Stoeck

, p. 426 (1948)

Effect of temperature in a closed unstirred Belousov-Zhabotinsky system

Masia, Marco,Marchettini, Nadia,Zambrano, Vincenzo,Rustici, Mauro

, p. 285 - 291 (2001)

Complex periodic and aperiodic behaviours are reported in an unstirred Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory reaction performed at temperatures varying between 0°C and 8°C. A route to chaos following a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse (RTN) scenario is identified. Thus, temperature effects on the coupling between chemical kinetics, diffusion and convection, seem to be responsible for the observed RTN scenario. In this Letter we demonstrate that the temperature is a bifurcation parameter for the sequence period-1 → quasiperiodicity → chaos.

Novel oscillatory reactions involving double substrate

Rastogi,Chand, Prem

, p. 434 - 440 (2003)

The oscillatory features of a novel type B-Z type oscillator, fructose [F] + oxalic acid [OA] + Ce4+ + BrO3- + H2SO4 has been investigated. The induction time is found to be usually small or negligible. Both single frequency oscillations and two oscillatory states separated by a time-pause are observed. Oscillations occur between two critical limits of [F] and [OA]. A tentative mechanism has been suggested which involves both Br- ion control and free radical control. Computer simulation correctly predicts some of the oscillatory features such as (i) time of initiation, (ii) critical limits of [OA] and (iii) stoppage of oscillations by higher [Br-], confirming the primary role of Br- control mechanism.

The role of the medium in electrochemical functionalization and dispersion of carbon nanotubes

Krivenko,Komarova,Ryabenko,Naumkin,Stenina,Sviridova,Sul’yanov

, p. 1071 - 1077 (2011)

An electrochemical method for dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is described. The technique is based on grafting of oxygen-containing functional groups to the nanotube surface during electrolysis in aqueous and nonaqueous potassium bromide solutions. A dependence of the degree of functionalization of nanotubes on the solvent was revealed experimentally. Nanotubes treated in DMSO have about 14 carbon atoms per oxygen atom from functional groups (cf. nearly four C atoms per oxygen atom in the nanotubes treated in aqueous solutions). The corresponding maximum specific capacities of the electrodes are nearly 10 and 60 F g-1. The samples treated in solutions of KBr in DMSO have about 300 carbon atoms per bromine atom on the nanotube surface (cf. only 30 carbon atoms in the samples treated in aqueous solution). A mechanism of electrochemical modification of SWNTs is proposed. Its key step is production of atomic oxygen that oxidizes the nanotube surface with the formation of functional groups.

Ramsay, W.

, (1908)

Ettorre, Renato,Martelli, Mario

, p. 73 - 76 (1985)

Very Efficient Visible Light Energy Harvesting and Conversion by Spectral Sensitization of High Surface Area Polycrystalline Titanium Dioxide Films

Vlachopoulos, Nick,Liska, Paul,Augustynski, Jan,Graetzel, Michael

, p. 1216 - 1220 (1988)

By using high surface area (roughness factor ca. 200) polycrystalline anatase films together with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II), RuL34-, as a sensitizer, we have achieved unprecedentedly high visible light to electric current conversion efficiencies in regenerative photoelectrochemical cells.Incident photon to current conversion efficiencies of 73percent have been obtained at the wavelength of maximum absorption of the dye in the presence of iodide as an electron donor.Bromide is oxidized under the same conditions with an efficiency of 56percent.A regenerative cell based on the Br2/Br1- redox system gives a monochromatic light to power conversion efficiency of 12percent with a fill factor of 74percent.Preliminary results with polychromatic illumination are also presented.

New Bromate Oscillator: The Bromate-Thiourea Reaction in a CSTR

Simoyi, Reuben H.

, p. 2802 - 2804 (1986)

The reaction between bromate and thiourea in acidic medium (HClO4) has been studied in a closed system and in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR).The stoichiometry of the reaction at pH less than 2 has been deduced to be 8 BrO3(-) + 5 CS(NH2)2 + 8 H(+) + 6 H2O -> 4 Br2 + 5 (NH4)2SO4 + 5 CO2.In closed systems the reaction is characterized by an induction period whose length is inversely proportional to the initial concentrations of both acid and bromate.The induction period is followed by production of molecular bromine.In the CSTR the reaction displays sustained simple periodic oscillations in the bromine concentrations and the redox potential.No bistability was observed in the system.

Kinetics of the BrO + BrO Reaction

Turnipseed, Andrew A.,Birks, John W.,Calvert, Jack G.

, p. 7477 - 7482 (1990)

Discharge flow/mass spectrometry has been used to measure the rate coefficient for the disproportionation reaction of BrO radicals, BrO + BrO -> products, at 2-Torr total pressure and over the temperature range 253-400 K.The value of k1 was fou

Great enhancement in the oxidation ability of dilute nitric acid in nanoscale water-droplets of reverse micelle systems

Hojo, Masashi,Ueda, Tadaharu,Daike, Chihiro,Takezaki, Fumiko,Furuya, Yumi,Miyamoto, Kiyomi,Narutaki, Akio,Kato, Ryosuke

, p. 1215 - 1222 (2006)

In reverse micelle systems, a large enhancement of the oxidation ability of dilute nitric acid was discovered, and its oxidation mechanism was explored. The Br- ion in the surfactant, CTAB, was oxidized to Br2 (or Br3-) in the CHCl3/CTAB/H2O reverse micelle system with W 1/4 1:0{4:0 by diluted nitric acid (0.25-2.5 mol dm-3 in 1.0 vol% H2O portion) at 15-40°C where CTAB stands for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and the W value is the ratio of [H2O]/ [surfactant]. At higher concentrations of nitric acid and temperatures, faster reactions occurred. Otherwise, long reaction times were needed, e.g., 10 h for 1.0 mol dm-3 HNO3 at 25°C. Light or ambient oxygen did not appear to affect the reaction. The ratio of produced Br2 or (Br3-) to the initial amount of HNO3 indicated the following reaction scheme: 2HNO3 + 2Br- → Br2 + NO2- + NO 3- + H2O. The nitroyl ion (or nitronium ion), NO2+, was proposed as the intermediate active species. The addition of HClO4 as a proton source caused the complete reduction of N(V) as follows: NO3- + 6H+ + 5e- → 1/2N2 + 3H2O. The hydrogen-bonding structure of H2O in the CTAB or CTAC (cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) micelle system was found to be distorted, compared to that in bulk water, by the 1H NMR chemical shift of H2O. The change in 1H NMR chemical shift also demonstrated the consumption of protons during the oxidation of Br-, but not of Cl-, by dilute HNO3.

Photoassisted Oxidation of Hydrogen Bromide to Bromine

Fuchs, Benzion,Mayer, Wilfried J. W.,Abramson, Sarah

, p. 1711 - 1713 (1985)

Irradiation of oxygen-swept aqueous HBr solutions in the presence of catalytic amounts of anthraquinone derivatives (e.g. 2-sulphonate) produces molecular bromine (up to 3 mmol h-1) with quantum yields of up to 0.07.

Kovalenko, A. S.,Tikhonova, L. P.

, (1983)

Duonghong, Dung,Erbs, Wilson,Shuben, Li,Graetzel, Michael

, p. 266 - 268 (1983)

Lang, R.

, p. 116 - 125 (1938)

Crowell, W. R.

, p. 1324 - 1324 (1932)

A Novel Flash Photolysis/UV Absorption System Employing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Detection: A Study of the BrO + BrO Reaction at 298 K

Rowley, David M.,Harwood, Matthew H.,Freshwater, Raymond A.,Jones, Roderic L.

, p. 3020 - 3029 (1996)

A novel flah photolysis/kinetic absorption spectroscopy system has been constructed for the study of gas phase reactions.The experiment incorporates a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector and represents the first application of such devices to the study of gas phase kinetics.The CCD enables the recording of rapid sequential time-resolved UV/visible absorption spectra before, during, and after photolysis of a gas mixture.The unequivocal identification and monitoring of several absorbing components in the reacting mixture is therefore possible, therby maximizing the amount of information gathered from a single flash photolysis experiment.The experimental system is described in full here.Results from a preliminary kinetic study of the BrO self-reaction at 298 K are also described: BrO + BrO -> 2Br + O2 (1a); BrO + BrO -> Br2 + O2 (1b).Experiments were performed to independently determine the rates of the overall reaction, k1, defined by (-d/dt = 2k12) and both individual reaction channels (1a) and (1b), giving k1 = (2.98 +/- 0.42)E-12 cm3 molecule s-1; k1a = (2.49 +/- 0.42)E-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1; and k1b = (4.69 +/- 0.68)E-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K and 760 Torr total pressure in oxygen bath gas.Errors are 2?.Deviations from the expected second-order kinetic scheme were observed in the experimental system wherein bromine was photolyzed in the presence of excess ozone as a source of the BrO radicals.At low ozone concentrations, the formation of Br2O is proposed, and at very high ozone concentrations the formation of symmetric bromine dioxide, OBrO, is observed.Kinetic schemes for these side reactions have been deduced, and the mechanistic implications of these results are discussed.

Richards, T. W.,Hoenigschmid, O.

, p. 1577 - 1590 (1910)

Elemental Bromine Production by TiO2Photocatalysis and/or Ozonation

Parrino, Francesco,Camera Roda, Giovanni,Loddo, Vittorio,Palmisano, Leonardo

, p. 10391 - 10395 (2016)

Significant production of elemental bromine (Br2) was observed for the first time when treating bromide containing solutions at acidic pH, with TiO2photocatalyst, ozone, or a combination thereof. Br2selectivities up to approximately 85 % were obtained and the corresponding bromine mass balance values satisfied. The process is general and may be applied at a laboratory scale for green bromination reactions, or industrially as a cheap, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to the currently applied bromine production methods.

Kondratjew, V.,Leipunsky, A.

, p. 353 (1929)

Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants

Frinak, Elizabeth K.,Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

, p. 10456 - 10464 (2006)

This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br 2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br - levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

Sol-gel-derived carbon ceramic composite electrodes bulk-modified with 1:12-silicomolybdic acid

Wang, Peng,Wang, Xiangping,Zhu, Guoyi

, p. 481 - 483 (2000)

1:12-Silicomolybdic acid (SiMo12) doped carbon ceramic composite electrodes were fabricated by incorporating SiMo12 and graphite powder in a methyltrimethoxysilane-based gel and characterized by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. It was demonstrated that the chemically modified electrodes were suitable for electrocatalytic reduction of bromate. The electrodes had the remarkable advantage of surface renewal owing to bulk modification, as well as simple preparation, good mechanical and chemical stability and reproducibility.

Tuttle,Rollefson

, p. 1525,1526 (1941)

Duke, F. R.,Lawrence, W. W.

, p. 1269 - 1271 (1961)

Equilibrium and kinetics studies of reactions of manganese acetate, cobalt acetate, and bromide salts in acetic acid solutions

Jiao,Metelski,Espenson

, p. 3228 - 3233 (2001)

The oxidation of hydrogen bromide and alkali metal bromide salts to bromine in acetic acid by cobalt(III) acetate has been studied. The oxidation is inhibited by Mn(OAc)2 and Co(OAc)2, which lower the bromide concentration through complexation. Stability constants for CoIIBrn were redetermined in acetic acid containing 0.1% water as a function of temperature. This amount of water lowers the stability constant values as compared to glacial acetic acid. MnIIBrn. complexes were identified by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the stability constants for MnIIBrn were determined by electrochemical methods. The kinetics of HBr oxidation shows that there is a new pathway in the presence of MnIIBrn. Analysis of the concentration dependences shows that CoBr2 and MnBr2 are the principal and perhaps sole forms of the divalent metals that react with Co(III) and Mn(III). The interpretation of these data is in terms of this step (M, N = Mn or Co): M(OAc)3 + NIIBr2 + HOAc → M(OAc)2 + NIIIBr2OAc. The second-order rate constants (L mol-1 s-1) for different M, N pairs in glacial acetic acid are 4.8 (Co, Co at 40 °C), 0.96 (Mn, Co at 20 °C), 0.15 (Mn(III)·Co(II), Co at 20 °C), and 0.07 (Mn, Mn at 20 °C). Following that, reductive elimination of the dibromide radical is proposed to occur: NIIIBr2OAc + HOAc → N(OAc)2 + HBr2·. This finding implicates the dibromide radical as a key intermediate in this chemistry, and indeed in the cobaltbromide catalyzed autoxidation of methylarenes, for which some form of zerovalent bromine has been identified. The selectivity for CoBr2 and MnBr2 is consistent with a pathway that forms this radical rather than bromine atoms which are at a considerably higher Gibbs energy. Mn(OAc)3 oxidizes PhCH2Br, k = 1.3 L mol-1 s-1 at 50.0 °C in HOAc.

Mechanistic Study of the Co-ordination of Hydrogen Peroxide to Methylrhenium Trioxide

Pestovsky, Oleg,Eldik, Rudi van,Huston, Patrick,Espenson, James H.

, p. 133 - 138 (1995)

The activation parameters (ΔH(excit.), ΔS(excit.), ΔV(excit.)) for the co-ordination of hydrogen peroxide to methylrhenium trioxide have been determined.They indicate a mechanism involving nucleophilic attack.The protons lost in converting H2O2 to a co-ordinated η2-O2(2-) group are transferred to one oxide oxygen, which remains on the metal as an aqua ligand.The rate of reaction is not pH dependent, consistent with the deuterium kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 2.8).The method used to study the reaction is based on the ability of ReMeO3 to catalyse the reaction between Br(1-) and H2O2.The activation parameters for the uncatalysed reaction of Br(1-) and H2O2 were also determined.The value found for ΔV(excit.) is consistent with the accepted mechanism, proton-assisted nucleophilic displacement.

Dancer, W.

, p. 477 - 488 (1862)

Orban, Miklos,De Kepper, Patrick,Epstein, Irving R.

, p. 2657 - 2658 (1982)

Kovalenko, A. S.

, (1983)

Koelsch,Hochman

, p. 503 (1938)

Antidepressant drugs: Highly sensitive and validated spectrophotometric technique

Deepakumari,Prashanth,Revanasiddappa

, p. 2382 - 2388 (2014)

A simple, rapid, selective and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the quantitative determination of the tricyclic antidepressant drugs, desipramine hydrochloride (DPH), clomipramine hydrochloride (CPH) and imipramine hydrochloride (IMH) in pure and in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is based on the bromination of above drugs with known excess of bromine. The unreacted bromine is determined based on its ability to bleach the dye Eiochrome blue black R quantitatively at 530 nm for all the three drugs obeying Beer's law in the range, 0.0-8, 0.0-10 and 0.0-9.0 μg ml-1 for DPH, CPH and IMH, respectively. The molar absorptivity values were found to be 1.61 × 104, 1.62 × 104 and1.57 × 104 l mol-1cm-1, respectively with the corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values 0.0187, 0.0216 and 0.0202 μg cm-2. The limits of detection and (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported for the developed method. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the method were established according to the current ICH guidelines. Applications of the procedure to the analysis of various pharmaceutical preparations gave reproducible and accurate results. Further, the validity of the procedure was confirmed by applying the standard addition technique and the results were evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed method over the reference method.

“Hetero-Multifunctionalization” of Gallium Corroles: Facile Synthesis, Phosphorescence, Redox Tuning, and Photooxidative Catalytic Improvement

Zhan, Xuan,Zini, Yael,Fridman, Natalia,Chen, Qiu-Cheng,Churchill, David G.,Gross, Zeev

, p. 163 - 168 (2019/12/24)

Bromination of tris- and tetrakis-trifluoromethylated gallium corroles (3CF3?Ga and 4CF3?Ga) afforded tetrabrominated species 3CF3?4Br?Ga and 4CF3?4Br?Ga (yields: 20 % and 25 %) characterized by NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Red-shifted absorption and emission bands were found; 3CF3?4Br?Ga and 4CF3?4Br?Ga displayed 5–12 nm shifts in their Soret bands and 8–17 nm shifts for their Q bands, compared to the respective nonbrominated species (3CF3?Ga and 4CF3?Ga). The respective ΦF values were found to be 0.013 and 0.016; phosphorescence (lifetime=0.23 μs) was observed for 3CF3?4Br?Ga (anaerobic, RT). The effect of tetrabromination on redox potentials (0.89 and 0.99 V) gave a 85 mV shift per Br atom in the reduction potential. 4CF3?4Br?Ga allows for efficient catalytic photooxidative Br? to Br2 conversion compared to the β-octa-Br system (Br8?Ga) structurally characterized here. This “hetero-multifunctionalization” approach, that is, is substitution with different sets of β-substituents, can help optimize porphyrinoid properties.

Electrochemistry of Br-/Br2 Redox Couple in Acetonitrile, Methanol and Mix Media of Acetonitrile-Methanol: An Insight into Redox Behavior of Bromide on Platinum (Pt) and Gold (Au) Electrode

Tariq, Muhammad

, p. 295 - 312 (2019/06/07)

Electro-oxidation of Br- on platinum and gold electrode was studied in acetonitrile, methanol and mix media of acetonitrile-methanol. The mechanism of Br- oxidation in these media was investigated using CV, Semi Integration Cyclic Vo

Treatment of Olefinic Amides with NBS in Water: Synthesis of Monobromo- A nd Multibromobenzoxazines

Cao, Wen-Bin,Ji, Shun-Jun,Xu, Xiao-Ping,Zhang, Xu

supporting information, p. 3805 - 3814 (2019/10/11)

Treatment of olefinic amides with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in water is reported. Monobromobenzoxazines were mainly formed at room temperature, while at 80? °C multibromobenzoxazines were preferentially generated. Mechanism studies showed that the reaction might proceed via a cascade of electrophilic addition at the C=C bond followed by electrophilic substitution at the aromatic ring. No additives are required in this protocol.

A bromo-capped diruthenium(i,i) N-heterocyclic carbene compound for in situ bromine generation with NBS: Catalytic olefin aziridination reactions

Sengupta, Gargi,Pandey, Pragati,De, Subhabrata,Ramapanicker, Ramesh,Bera, Jitendra K.

, p. 11917 - 11924 (2018/09/10)

A bromo-capped metal-metal bonded diruthenium(i,i) complex Ru2(CO)4(PIN)2Br2 (1) (PIN = 1-isopropyl-3-(5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyrid-2-yl)imidazol-2-ylidene) generates bromine with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) at room temperature. Cycloalkene and stilbene are readily brominated by stoichiometric reactions with 1 and NBS. An analysis of the dibrominated products suggests the formation of cyclic bromonium intermediates indicating in situ Br2 generation. Complex 2, an iodide analogue of 1, is also synthesized. The reaction of 2 with N-iodosuccinimide releases I2, which is confirmed by the starch-iodine test. The catalytic utility of 1 is examined for the bromination of phenol. Catalyst 1, in combination with NBS and base, exhibits regioselectivity towards monobrominated products. Furthermore, efficient olefin aziridination is demonstrated utilizing catalyst 1 in the presence of NBS, K2CO3 and TsNH2.

Binding of halogens by a Cr8 metallacrown

Sava, Daniel Florin,Zheng, Nan,Vitórica-Yrezábal, I?igo J.,Timco, Grigore A.,Winpenny, Richard E. P.

supporting information, p. 13771 - 13775 (2018/10/20)

A Cr8 metallacrown binds halogens X2 (Cl2, Br2 and I2) without loss of crystallinity; the binding has been studied by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic techniques.

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

Acetyl bromide
506-96-7

Acetyl bromide

p-benzoquinone
106-51-4

p-benzoquinone

2,5-dibromohydroquinone diacetate
40101-03-9

2,5-dibromohydroquinone diacetate

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

water
7732-18-5

water

bromoacetic acid
79-08-3

bromoacetic acid

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
in Gegenwart von KOH;
1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane
79-27-6

1,1,2,2-tetrabromoethane

1,1,2-tribromoethylene
598-16-3

1,1,2-tribromoethylene

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 190 ℃;
2,3-dibromo-2,4,4-trimethyl-glutaric acid

2,3-dibromo-2,4,4-trimethyl-glutaric acid

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
dibromide of/the/ trans-α.α.γ-trimethyl-glutaconic acid; beim Erhitzen;
tetrachloromethane
56-23-5

tetrachloromethane

diethyl ether
60-29-7,927820-24-4

diethyl ether

(2-isopropylidenaminooxy-ethyl)-malonic acid
854833-61-7

(2-isopropylidenaminooxy-ethyl)-malonic acid

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
des ein kristallines Dibromid liefert bei 25grad;
ethyl dibromoacetate
617-33-4

ethyl dibromoacetate

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
tribromoacetic acid
75-96-7

tribromoacetic acid

sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
at 160 ℃; Prod.5:CO2;
1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane
13440-24-9

1,2-dibromo-1,2-diphenylethane

stilbene
588-59-0

stilbene

(E)-1-bromo-1,2-diphenylethene
14447-41-7,40389-50-2

(E)-1-bromo-1,2-diphenylethene

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
isomer of mp: 237 degree; bei der Destillation;
sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

2-benzoyl-4-nitro-benzenesulfenyl bromide
412305-62-5

2-benzoyl-4-nitro-benzenesulfenyl bromide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield
3-bromo-2,6-dimethyl-pyran-4-one; tribromoide

3-bromo-2,6-dimethyl-pyran-4-one; tribromoide

hydrogen bromide
10035-10-6,12258-64-9

hydrogen bromide

bromine
7726-95-6

bromine

Conditions
Conditions Yield

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