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Sodium chlorate

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Sodium chlorate

EINECS 231-887-4
CAS No. 7775-09-9 Density 2.49 g/cm3
PSA 57.20000 LogP 0.33310
Solubility 1000 g/L (20 °C) in water Melting Point 248-261 °C(lit.)
Formula ClNaO3 Boiling Point 300oC
Molecular Weight 106.44 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1495 5.1/PG 2 Appearance white crystals
Safety 13-17-46-61 Risk Codes 9-22-51/53
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7775-09-9 (Chloric acid, sodiumsalt (1:1)) Hazard Symbols OxidizingO, HarmfulXn, DangerousN
Synonyms

Chloricacid, sodium salt (8CI,9CI);Agrosan;Asex;Atlacide;B-Herbatox;Desolet;Evau-Super;Granex O;Kusa-tohru;Oxycil;Shed-A-Leaf;Sodakem;Sodiumchlorate;Sodium chlorate (NaClO3);Travex;VAL-DROP;

 

Sodium chlorate Synthetic route

borax

7775-09-9

sodium chlorate

B

11113-50-1

boric acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorine In water decompn. of concd. borax-soln. by Cl;;

Sodium chlorate Chemical Properties

Structure of Chloric acid, sodiumsalt (1:1) (CAS NO.7775-09-9):

IUPAC Name: sodium chlorate 
Empirical Formula: ClNaO3
Molecular Weight: 106.441 
EINECS: 231-887-4 
Density: 2.49
Melting point: 248-261 ºC
Water solubility: 1000 g/L (20 ºC) 
Stability: Stable. Mixtures of this material with organic fibrous or absorbent material and with a variety of other materials are potentially explosive. A full MSDS sheet must be consulted before use. Incompatible with strong reducing agents, organic materials, alcohols. 
Product Categories: Inorganics;Essential Chemicals;Reagent Plus;Routine Reagents;InorganicsAnalytical Reagents for General Use;Herbicides;Pesticides&Metabolites;Puriss p.a.;Q-S, Puriss p.a.;ACS GradeSynthetic Reagents;Inorganic Salts 
Synonyms of Chloric acid, sodiumsalt (1:1) (CAS NO.7775-09-9): Agrosan ; Asex ; Atlacide ; Chlorate de sodium ;
 Chlorsaure ; De-Fol-Ate ; Drexel defol ; Grain sorghum harvest-aid ; Natrium chloraat ; Sodium chlorate ; Travex ; 
 Tumbleaf 
Canonical SMILES: [O-]Cl(=O)=O.[Na+]
InChI: InChI=1S/ClHO3.Na/c2-1(3)4;/h(H,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
InChIKey: YZHUMGUJCQRKBT-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Sodium chlorate Uses

 Chloric acid, sodiumsalt (1:1) (CAS NO.7775-09-9) is used as a non-selective herbicide. It is considered phytotoxic to all green plant parts. It can also kill through root absorption.

Sodium chlorate Production

Sodium chlorate(7775-09-9) is manufactured by the electrolysis of saturated, acidulated brine mixed with sodium dichromate to reduce the corrosive action of the hypochlorous acid present (Fig. 1).
 The brine solution is made from soft water or condensate from the evaporator and rock salt purified of calcium and magnesium. The rectangular steel cell is filled with either the brine solution or a recovered salt solution, made from recovered salt-containing chlorate, dissolved in condensate from the evaporator. Electrodes are graphite and steel for small cells, graphite and graphite for larger cells. The temperature of the cell is maintained at 40 °C by cooling water.
 The electrolysis step produces sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at the cathode and chlorine (Cl2) at the anode, and mixing occurs with the formation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) that is oxidized to chlorate.
        2NaCl + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2                
        Cl2 + 2NaOH → NaOCl + NaCl + H2O
          3NaOCl → NaClO3 + 2NaCl
 The cell liquor is pumped to tanks where itis heated with steam to 90 °C
to destroy any hypochlorite present and the required amount of barium chloride is introduced to precipitate any chromate present.
 The graphite mud from the electrodes and the barium chromate settle to the bottom of the tank and the clear liquor is pumped through a filter to the evaporator storage tanks. The liquor In the storage tank is neutralized with soda ash and evaporated, after which the liquor is allowed to settle to remove the sodium chloride, The settled liquid is filtered and cooled and the crystals of sodium chlorate that drop out are separated and dried
 Potassium chloride can be electrolyzed for the direct production of potassium chlorate, but, because sodium chlorate is so much more soluble, the production of the sodium salt is generally preferred. Potassium chlorate may be obtained from the sodium chlorate by a metathesis reaction with potassium chloride.


FIGURE 1 Manufacture of sodium chlorate.

Sodium chlorate Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LDLo oral 1350mg/kg (1350mg/kg)   Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. Vol. -, Pg. 1013, 1966.
child LD50 unreported 185mg/kg (185mg/kg)   Guide to the Chemicals Used in Crop Protection. Vol. 6, Pg. 461, 1973.
dog LDLo oral 700mg/kg (700mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
human LDLo unreported 214mg/kg (214mg/kg)   Guide to the Chemicals Used in Crop Protection. Vol. 6, Pg. 461, 1973.
man TDLo oral 286mg/kg (286mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

BLOOD: CHANGES IN CELL COUNT (UNSPECIFIED)

BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN
Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 15, Pg. 185, 1979.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 596mg/kg (596mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 257, Pg. 791, 1963.
mouse LD50 oral 8350mg/kg (8350mg/kg)   Uzbekskii Biologicheskii Zhurnal. Uzbek Biological Journal. Vol. (1), Pg. 40, 1986.
rabbit LD50 oral 7200mg/kg (7200mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 31(1), Pg. 49, 1987.
rabbit LD50 skin > 10gm/kg (10000mg/kg)   BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 24-3/1971,
rat LC50 inhalation > 28gm/m3/1H (28000mg/m3)   BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 24-3/1971,
rat LD50 oral 1200mg/kg (1200mg/kg)   Pharmaceutical Journal. Vol. 185, Pg. 361, 1960.
women TDLo oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BLOOD: OTHER HEMOLYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT ANEMIA

BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 539, 1969.

Sodium chlorate Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Sodium chlorate Safety Profile

Hazard Codes: OxidizingO,HarmfulXn,DangerousN
Risk Statements: 9-22-51/53 
R9:Explosive when mixed with combustible material. 
R22:Harmful if swallowed. 
R51/53:Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Safety Statements: 13-17-46-61 
S13:Keep away from food, drink and animal foodstuffs. 
S17:Keep away from combustible material. 
S46:If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. 
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.
RIDADR: UN 1495 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: FO0525000
HazardClass: 5.1
PackingGroup: II
Human poison by unspecified routes. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: blood hemolysis with or without anemia, methemoglobinemia-carboxyhemoglobinemia and pulmonary changes. Mutation data reported. A skin, mucous membrane, and eye irritant. Damages the red blood cells of humans when ingested.
A powerful oxidizer. It can explode on contact with flame or sparks (static discharge) and has caused many industrial explosions. May react explosively with agricultural materials (e.g., peat, powdered sulfur, sawdust, urotropine, thiuram), alkenes + potassium osmate, aluminum + rubber, ammonium salts, grease, leather, powdered metals, nonmetals, sulfides, cyanides, cyanoborane oligomer, nitrobenzene, organic matter, paint + polyethylene, phosphorus, sodium phosphinate. Violent reaction or ignition with aluminum, ammonium sulfate, Sb2S3, arsenic, arsenic trioxide, 1,3-bis(trichloromethylbenzene) + heat, carbon, charcoal, MnO2, phosphorus, potassium cyanide, osmium + heat, paper, sulfuric acid, thiocyanates, triethylene glycol + wood, wood, zinc. Can also react violently with nitrobenzene, paper, metal sulfides, dibasic organic acids, organic matter. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl and Na2O. See also CHLORATES.

Sodium chlorate Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  5.1; Label: Oxidizer

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