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Sodium carbonate

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Name

Sodium carbonate

EINECS 207-838-8
CAS No. 497-19-8 Density 2.54 g/cm3
Solubility 22 g/100 mL (20 °C) in water Melting Point 851 °C
Formula Na2CO3 Boiling Point 333.6 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 105.99 Flash Point 169.8 °C
Transport Information UN 3082 Appearance white odourless powder
Safety 36/37-26-22-36-39 Risk Codes 32-36-51/53-36/37/38-41-37/38
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 497-19-8 (Sodium carbonate) Hazard Symbols HarmfulXn, IrritantXi
Synonyms

Soda Ash;Carbonic acid, disodium salt;Bisodium carbonate;Calcined soda;Carbonic acid sodium salt;Carbonic acid sodium salt (1:2);Carbonic acid, disodium salt;Crystol carbonate;Disodium carbonate (Na2CO3);Soda, calcined;Sodium carbonate (2:1);Sodium carbonate, anhydrous;

 

Sodium carbonate Specification

Sodium carbonate is also known as soda ash with the chemical formula Na2CO3. It is a white powder or granules which is odorless. You should keep it in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. In addition, you must protect it against physical damage and isolate from incompatible substances. The substance is stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Meanwhile, with the CAS register number 497-19-8, it has the EINECS registry number 207-838-8.

Physical properties about Sodium carbonate are:  (1)ACD/LogP: -0.809; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -1.98; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -3.77; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00 ; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 1.00; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 1.00; (8)#H bond acceptors: 3; (9)#H bond donors: 2; (10)Flash Point: 169.8 °C ; (11)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 63.37 kJ/mol; (12)Boiling Point: 333.6 °C at 760 mmHg; (13)Vapour Pressure: 2.58E-05 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Sodium carbonate : Sodium carbonate can be extracted from the ashes of many plants. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from table salt and limestone in a process known as the Solvay process. The process needs calcium carbonate which is heated to release carbon dioxide at the bottom of the tower and ammonia used to convert sodium chloride to sodium carbonate at the top of the tower. The sodium bicarbonate was then converted to Sodium carbonate by heating it, releasing water and carbon dioxide:

CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Meanwhile, Sodium carbonate can also be prepared by ammonia, carbon dioxide and saturation salt, called as union system alkaline which is improved from Solvay process by Hou Debang. This reaction has three steps as the follwing:

NH3 + CO2 + H2O → NH4HCO3
NH4HCO3 + NaCl → NaHCO3 + NH4Cl
2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O

Uses of Sodium carbonate: Sodium carbonate is domestically well known for its everyday use as a water softener. It also has the most important use to manufacture glass. Sodium carbonate is also used as a relatively strong base in various settings. For example, sodium carbonate is used as a pH regulator to maintain stable alkaline conditions necessary for the action of the majority of developing agents. In domestic use, Sodium carbonate is used as a water softener during laundry. It is often used as an electrolyte in chemistry. This is because electrolytes are usually salt-based, and sodium carbonate acts as a very good conductor in the process of electrolysis. It is also used as a primary standard for acid-base titrations because it is solid and air-stable, making it easy to weigh accurately. In dyeing with fiber-reactive dyes, sodium carbonate is used to ensure proper chemical bonding of the dye with the fibers, typically before dyeing, mixed with the dye, or after dyeing.

When using Sodium carbonate, you must be cautious about it. The substance is irritant to eyes, respiratory system and skin and toxic to aquatic organisms which may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Whenever you will contact or use it, you must wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: C(=O)([O-])[O-].[Na+].[Na+]
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/CH2O3.2Na/c2-1(3)4;;/h(H2,2,3,4);;/q;2*+1/p-2
(3)InChIKey: CDBYLPFSWZWCQE-UHFFFAOYSA-L

Toxicity of Sodium carbonate:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
guinea pig LC50 inhalation 800mg/m3/2H (800mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
Environmental Research. Vol. 31, Pg. 138, 1983.
man LDLo oral 714mg/kg (714mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

GASTROINTESTINAL: ULCERATION OR BLEEDING FROM SMALL INTESTINE

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 32, Pg. 570, 1990.
mouse LC50 inhalation 1200mg/m3/2H (1200mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
Environmental Research. Vol. 31, Pg. 138, 1983.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 117mg/kg (117mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 257, Pg. 791, 1963.
mouse LD50 oral 6600mg/kg (6600mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 20(11), Pg. 55, 1976.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 2210mg/kg (2210mg/kg)   Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology Vol. 33, Pg. 266, 1970.
rat LC50 inhalation 2300mg/m3/2H (2300mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
Environmental Research. Vol. 31, Pg. 138, 1983.
rat LD50 oral 4090mg/kg (4090mg/kg)   "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972Vol. -, Pg. 8, 1972.

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