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Zinc chloride

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Zinc chloride

EINECS 231-592-0
CAS No. 7646-85-7 Density 2.91 g/cm3
Solubility Water solubility: 432 g/100 mL (20 °C) Melting Point 292 °C, 565 K, 558 °F
Formula ZnCl2 Boiling Point 756 °C, 1029 K, 1393 °F
Molecular Weight 136.315 Flash Point 732oC
Transport Information UN 2331 8/PG 3 Appearance white crystalline solid
Safety 26-36/37/39-45-60-61 Risk Codes 22-34-50/53
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7646-85-7 (Zinc chloride) Hazard Symbols HarmfulXn,CorrosiveC,DangerousN

Zinkchloride [Dutch];Zine dichloride;Zinc (II) ion;Zinc(II) chloride;Zinkchloride;zinc(+2) cation;Zinc Chloride (battery grade);Zinc muriate, solution;dichlorozinc;Zinc chloride (ZnCl2);Zinc chloride, solution;


Zinc chloride Consensus Reports

Zinc and its compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

Zinc chloride Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: Fume: TWA 1 mg/m3; STEL 2 mg/m3
ACGIH TLV: TWA 1 mg/m3; STEL 2 mg/m3 (fume)
DOT Classification:  8; Label: Corrosive

Zinc chloride Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use OSHA: #ID-125 g.

Zinc chloride Specification

Zinc chloride, with the CAS register number 7646-85-7, is a chemical compound with the formula ZnCl2. The substance is white crystalline solid. Its EINECS register number is 231-592-0. When dissolved in water, Zinc chloride is a strong acid. In addition, it is hygroscopic and even deliquescent, therefore, the samples of Zinc chloride should be protected from sources of moisture, including the water vapor present in ambient air. Zinc chloride is soluble in ethanol, glycerol and acetone. 

Properties: Zinc chloride has a specific gravity of 2.75, a pH of 4 and a burning taste. The anhydrous Zinc chloride which is white in color is known for its solubility in water. Zinc chloride is an ionic salt, though some covalent character is indicated by its low melting point (275 °C) and its high solubility in solvents such as diethyl ether. It behaves as a mild Lewis acid, and aqueous solutions have a pH around 4. It is hydrolyzed to an oxychloride when hydrated forms are heated.

In alkali solution in the presence of OH- ion various zinc hydroxychloride anions are present in solution, e.g. ZnOH3Cl2-, ZnOH2Cl22-,  ZnOHCl32-, and Zn5OH2Cl3·H2O (simonkolleite) precipitates. The use of Zinc chloride as a flux, sometimes in a mixture with ammonium chloride, involves the production of HCl and its subsequent reaction with surface oxides. In aqueous solution, Zinc chloride is a useful source of Zn2+ for the preparation of other zinc salts, for example zinc carbonate:

ZnCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → ZnCO3(s) + 2 NaCl(aq)

Preparation: Zinc chloride is an important compound and it is exists in its nine crystalline forms which are either colorless or white. It is actually a granular powder which we obtain by heating calcium chloride and zinc sulfate together.

Zinc chloride can also be prepared from zinc and hydrogen chloride.

Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl2 + H2

Hydrated forms and aqueous solutions of Zinc chloride may be readily prepared similarly by treating Zn metal with hydrochloric acid. Zinc oxide and zinc sulfide react with HCl:

ZnS(s) + 2 HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2S(g)

Uses: Historically a dilute aqueous solution of Zinc chloride was used as a disinfectant under the name "Burnett's Disinfecting Fluid". It is also used in some commercial brands of antiseptic mouthwash. Zinc chloride finds wide application in textile processing, metallurgical fluxes, and organic synthesis. Concentrated aqueous solutions of Zinc chloride have the interesting property of dissolving starch, silk, and cellulose.

In the laboratory, Zinc chloride finds wide use, principally as a moderate-strength Lewis acid. It can catalyse (A) the Fischer indole synthesis, and also (B) Friedel-Crafts acylation reactions involving activated aromatic rings. Ninhydrin reacts with amino acids and amines to form a coloured compound "Ruhemann's purple"(RP). Spraying with a Zinc chloride solution forms a 1:1 complex (RP)ZnCl(H2O)2 which is more readily detected as it fluoresces better than Ruhemann's purple.

When you are using Zinc chloride, please be cautious about it. The substance is Corrosive, harmful if swallowed and dangerous for the environment. It can cause burns and is toxic to aquatic organisms which may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Whenever you will use or contact it, you need wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

Descriptors computed from structure of Zinc chloride:
(1)Canonical SMILES: Cl[Zn]Cl
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/2ClH.Zn/h2*1H;/q;;+2/p-2

The toxicity data about Zinc chloride is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
child TDLo oral 169mg/kg (169mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA


Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 23, Pg. 1383, 1994.
guinea pig LD50 oral 200mg/kg (200mg/kg)   Food Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 313, 1942.
guinea pig LDLo intraperitoneal 173mg/kg (173mg/kg)   Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 11, Pg. 201, 1965.
man TCLo inhalation 4800mg/m3/30M (4800mg/m3) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES Personal Communication from J.J. Ferry, Area Manager, Industrial & Environmental Hygiene, General Electric Co., 1 River Rd., Schenectady, NY 12345, Jan. 10, 1974Vol. 10JAN1974,
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 24mg/kg (24mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 63, Pg. 461, 1982.
mouse LD50 intravenous 9090ug/kg (9.09mg/kg)   Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 23, Pg. 153, 1991.
mouse LD50 oral 329mg/kg (329mg/kg)   Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 23, Pg. 153, 1991.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 330mg/kg (330mg/kg)   Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 8, Pg. 1067, 1974.
rabbit LDLo intravenous 11mg/kg (11mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 9, Pg. 269, 1966.
rat LCLo inhalation 1960mg/m3/10M (1960mg/m3) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 59, Pg. 160, 1986.
rat LD intratracheal > 1500uL/kg (1.5mL/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

American Review of Respiratory Disease. Vol. 141(Suppl), Pg. A3-A937, 1990.

Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 30, Pg. 224, 1988.
rat LD50 intravenous 3690ug/kg (3.69mg/kg)   Indian Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 23, Pg. 153, 1991.
rat LD50 oral 350mg/kg (350mg/kg)   Food Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 313, 1942.

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