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1333-74-0

Basic Information
CAS No.: 1333-74-0
Name: Hydrogen
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 1333-74-0 (Hydrogen)
Formula: H2
Molecular Weight: 2.02
Synonyms: Dihydrogen;Hydrogen (H2);Hydrogen molecule;Mol. hydrogen;Molecular hydrogen;Orthohydrogen;Parahydrogen;Protium;
EINECS: 215-605-7
Density: 0.0899 g/cm3
Melting Point: -259.2 °C(lit.)
Boiling Point: -252.8 °C(lit.)
Flash Point: <-150°C
Solubility: 0.00017 g/100 mL in water
Appearance: Colorless gas
Hazard Symbols: HighlyF+
Risk Codes: 12
Safety: 9-16-33
Transport Information: UN 1950 2.1
PSA: 0.00000
LogP: 0.00000
Synthetic route
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With aluminium; sodium hydroxide at 21℃; under 758 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Sealed tube;100%
With Ce0896Y0.05Nb0054O2 at 1499.84℃; under 0.00750075 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;100%
With bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)iron(II); Mn(bpy)2Br2 In acetonitrile for 22h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube;100%
67-56-1

methanol

A

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water at 20℃; pH=4.5; Quantum yield; UV-irradiation; Inert atmosphere;A n/a
B 100%
With water at 350℃; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Flow reactor;A n/a
B 14%
With catalyst: TiO2/2percent-wt Pt In neat (no solvent) byproducts: formaldehyde; Irradiation (UV/VIS); photolysis (500 W Xe-lamp 350 and 400 nm, 25°C); IR spectroscopy, gas chromy.;
64-18-6

formic acid

A

124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium formate at 20℃; Catalytic behavior; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;A n/a
B 100%
With [pentamethylcyclopentadienyl*Ir(2,2′-bpyO)(OH)][Na] In water at 80℃; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst;A n/a
B 99%
With (1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Ir[κ2(N,N’)-(S,S)-N-triflyl-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine] In 1,2-dimethoxyethane; water at 0℃; for 53h; Reagent/catalyst; Time; Temperature; Solvent;A n/a
B 85%
7440-74-6

indium

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
byproducts: In2O3; at 473°K and then at 673-773°K more;100%

caesium hydride

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
vacuum, below 300°C;100%
In neat (no solvent) discoloration of CsH under influence of glow discharge with formation of H2;;
In neat (no solvent) discoloration of CsH under influence of glow discharge with formation of H2;;

rubidium hydride

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
vacuum, below 300°C;100%
In neat (no solvent) influence of glow discharge;;
In neat (no solvent) influence of glow discharge;;
64-19-7

acetic acid

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Fe(I)2[μ-SCH2CH2OCH2CH2S-μ](CO)6 In tetrahydrofuran Electrolysis; under N2; electrolysis of MeCN soln. of Fe complex contg. CH3COOH at 2.30 V; detd. by chromatographic analysis;100%
[Fe(I)2(CO)6(μ-S-N,N-bis(thiomethyl)-p-methoxyaniline)] In acetonitrile Kinetics; Electrolysis; at -2.18 V (vs. Fc/Fc(+));90%
With tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate; [CH3C(O)SCH2C(O)N(CH2SFe(CO)3)2] In acetonitrile Kinetics; Electrolysis; at -2.34 V (Fc/Fc(+)) for 0.5 h; gas chromy.;90%
392334-61-1, 371241-08-6, 392333-87-8, 1226500-22-6

[Fe(μ-S2(CH2)3)(CN)(CO)4(PMe3)](1-)

7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis; electrolysis of soln. of Fe2(CO)4(CN)(PMe3)S2(CH2)3 with 50 equiv. H2SO4at -1.2 V for 15 min; GC analysis;100%

vanadium sulfate

A

1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

7704-34-9

sulfur

Conditions
ConditionsYield
1690°C complete decompn.;A 100%
B n/a
red heat;A 7%
B n/a
400°C;
76-05-1

trifluoroacetic acid

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium hexafluorophosphate; C27H29BrN5Pd(1+)*BF4(1-); tert-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate(V) In N,N-dimethyl-formamide Electrochemical reaction;100%
With [Mn(2,2’-bipyridine)3]+[(CO)3Mn(μ-phenylsulfide)3Mn(CO)3]- In acetonitrile Catalytic behavior; Mechanism; Electrolysis;95%
With [(cis-C2H2(PPh2)2)Ni(μ-H)(μ-S2C3H6)Fe(CO)(cis-C2H2(PPh2)2)]BF4 In acetonitrile Catalytic behavior; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique; Electrolysis;93%
7664-41-7

ammonia

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
byproducts: N2; red heat;100%
decompn., heated porcelain pipe, 1100.degreeC;75.7%
With catalyst: Ru/SiC In gas Kinetics; byproducts: N2; NH3 decompd. in integrated ceramic microreactor at 450-1000°C; analyzed by gas chromatograph (Porapak N, TCD detector);
10034-85-2

hydrogen iodide

A

1333-74-0

hydrogen

B

7553-56-2

iodine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Kinetics; Irradiation (UV/VIS); in glass vessel or uviol vessel, wavelenght higher than 2540Å;;A 100%
B 100%
Kinetics; Irradiation (UV/VIS); at room temperature, in quartz vessel; equilibrium; wavelenght lower than 2540Å;;A 92.3%
B 92.3%
995 °C; part of a Mg-S-I water splitting cycle;A 31%
B 31%

tripotassiumdecaisobutylpentaaluminum

hydrogen cation

A

75-28-5

Isobutane

B

potassium ion

C

1333-74-0

hydrogen

D

Al(OH)2(1+)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water In water acid hydrolysis with 20% HCl; quantities of the products determined;A n/a
B 100%
C n/a
D n/a
111496-23-2

LaFe(1+)

110-82-7

cyclohexane

A

LaFeC6H6(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gas reaction in a mass spectrometer; total pressure: 4E-6 Torr;A 100%
B 100%
10043-11-5

ammonia borane complex

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [IrH2{(P(phenyl)2(o-C6H4CO))2H}] In tetrahydrofuran; water at 30℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 0.533333h; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst;100%
In neat (no solvent) at 50°C;;1.5%
With dihydrogen hexachloroplatinate In neat (no solvent) thermal decomposition of NH3BH3 milled with hydrogen hexachloroplatinate(IV) hydrate;
111496-23-2

LaFe(1+)

74-98-6

propane

A

LaFeC3H6(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gas reaction in a mass spectrometer; sample pressure 4E-7 Torr;A 100%
B 100%
100333-94-6

(triphos)RhH3

A

124223-20-7, 101075-59-6

[(CH3C(CH2PPh2)3)Rh(CO)(H)]

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CO In dichloromethane-d2 Charging of a soln. of Rh-complex with CO (1 atm), soln. turns immediately bright yellow.; Monitored by (1)H-NMR.;A 100%
B n/a
67-56-1

methanol

90762-81-5

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}3(μ3-H)}(1-)*Li(THF)4(1+)

A

111409-63-3

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-OCH3)}3(μ3-H)}(1-)*{Li(THF)4}(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran under inert gas; Y compound in THF and 3 equiv CH3OH combined at -195.8°C; warming to -78°C and stirring for 1.5 h; warming to room temp.; evapn. of the solvent; Y complex pptd. with toluene and centrifugated; chem. anal.;A 100%
B 100%
67-56-1

methanol

90762-81-5

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}3(μ3-H)}(1-)*Li(THF)4(1+)

A

111435-10-0

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}{(C5H5)2Y(OCH3)}2(μ3-H)}(1-)*{Li(THF)4}(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran under inert gas; Y compound in THF and 2 equiv CH3OH combined at -195.8°C; warming to -78°C and stirring for 1.5 h; warming to room temp.; evapn. of the solvent; Y complex pptd. with toluene and centrifugated; chem. anal.;A 100%
B 100%
67-56-1

methanol

90762-81-5

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}3(μ3-H)}(1-)*Li(THF)4(1+)

A

111435-08-6

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}2{(C5H5)2Y(μ-OCH3)}(μ3-H)}(1-)*{Li(THF)4}(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran under inert gas; equiv. amts. of the Y compound in THF and CH3OH combined at -195.8°C; warming to -78°C and stirring for 1.5 h; warming to room temp.; evapn. of the solvent; Y complex pptd. with toluene and centrifugated; chem. anal.;A 100%
B 100%
67-56-1

methanol

111435-08-6

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}2{(C5H5)2Y(μ-OCH3)}(μ3-H)}(1-)*{Li(THF)4}(1+)

A

111435-10-0

{{(C5H5)2Y(μ-H)}{(C5H5)2Y(OCH3)}2(μ3-H)}(1-)*{Li(THF)4}(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran under inert gas; equiv. amts of the Y compound in THF and CH3OH combined at -195.8°C; warming to -78°C and stirring for 1.5 h; warming to room temp.; evapn. of the solvent; Y complex pptd. with toluene and centrifugated; chem. anal.;A 100%
B 100%
111496-23-2

LaFe(1+)

79-29-8

2,3-dimethylbutane

A

LaFeC6H10(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gas reaction in a mass spectrometer; total pressure: 4E-6 Torr;A 100%
B 100%
111496-23-2

LaFe(1+)

82166-21-0

methyl cyclohexane

A

LaFeC7H8(1+)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gas reaction in a mass spectrometer; total pressure: 4E-6 Torr;A 100%
B 100%

(η(5):η(5)-fulvalene)Mo2(CO)6(H)2

A

(η(5):η(5)-fulvalene)Mo2(CO)6

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran under N2, degassed soln. of ((C5H4)2)Mo2(CO)6H2 in THF kept at 20°C for 24 h; H2 detected by MS; soln. rotary evapd., filtered through alumina using acetone;A 100%
B n/a

5(CH3CH2)4N(1+)*Mo2Fe6S8(S(C6H5))9(5-)=((CH3CH2)4N)5Mo2Fe6S8(S(C6H5))9

108-98-5

thiophenol

A

{MoFe}(3-)

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In N,N-dimethyl acetamide Kinetics; byproducts: Et4NSPh; under argon, to complex in DMA soln. of PhSH in DMA (500 equiv) was added, 25°C, 24 h, various yields of products for various ratios of educts; PhSSPh in DMA was added, products were not isolated;A n/a
B 100%
In acetonitrile Kinetics; byproducts: Et4NSPh; under argon, to complex in DMA soln. of PhSH in MeCN (1/1 molar ratio) was added, 25°C, 24 h, various yields of products for various ratios of educts; products were not isolated;A n/a
B 10%
In N,N-dimethyl acetamide byproducts: C6H5S(1-); Ar, excess PhSH; UV;A n/a
B >99
7337-45-3

N-tert-butylaminoborane

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With [IrH2{(P(phenyl)2(o-C6H4CO))2H}] In tetrahydrofuran; water Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Thermodynamic data; Reagent/catalyst;100%
120-140°C;;
In neat (no solvent) at 10-15°C;
90502-53-7

(biphenyl){Cr(CO)2}2(μ-dimethylphosphinomethane)

1493-13-6

trifluorormethanesulfonic acid

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
under N2, high vac. line, swivel side arm is charged with acid (degassed), sample of metal complex is placed in the react. flask, acid is poured onto the complex (27°C), react. for 10 min; MS;100%
1579-72-2

2,2,2-trifluoroethyl benzoate

A

99668-73-2

(trifluoroethoxo)tris(triphenylphosphine)cobalt(I)

B

120-51-4

benzoic acid benzyl ester

C

7727-37-9

nitrogen

D

1333-74-0

hydrogen

E

71-43-2

benzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene PhCOOCH2CF3 added to toluene soln. of CoH(N2)(PPh3)3, evacuated, stirred at 20°C for 2 days;A n/a
B 28%
C 100%
D 17%
E 32%

bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido][[(trimethylsilyl)methyl]stannyl]praseodymium*0.5(dimethoxyethane)

A

75-77-4

chloro-trimethyl-silane

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

C

10361-79-2

praseodymium(III) chloride

D

34570-67-7

Chlor-tris<(trimethylsilyl)methyl>zinn

E

999-97-3

1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyl-disilazane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride In tetrahydrofuran mixt. od dry HCl (excess), Pr/Sn-complex and THF keeping dor 1 d at room temp., THF replacing by hexane in usual way; ppt. filtration of, hexane-soln. evapn. (vac.), residue crystn. twice (hexane, -70°C), GLC of volatiles;A 50%
B 87%
C 100%
D 76.2%
E 33.3%
17455-13-9

18-crown-6 ether

nido-NB10H13

potassium triethylborohydride

A

bis[(18-crown-6)potassium][undecahydro-7-aza-nido-undecaborate]

B

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran byproducts: BEt3; molar ratio NB10H13:KBHEt3 1:2, cooling (-78°C), stirring (2 h, room temp.); evapn. (vac.), dissoln. (THF), crystn. (-40°C), recrystn. (CH3CN); elem. anal.;A 23%
B 100%
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
platinum In neat (no solvent) reaction at room temperature;;100%
platinum In neat (no solvent) reaction at room temperature;;100%
alpha-alumina impergnated with patinum nitrate and tin (II) chloride calcinated at 500C (0.08 wtpercent Pt; 0.08 wtpercent Sn) at 300℃; under 9000.9 Torr; Conversion of starting material; Gas phase;
1333-74-0

hydrogen

cadmium(II) oxide

7440-43-9

cadmium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
3h at 290-300°C, flowing hydrogen, react. start even at 282°C;100%
below temp. of sintering;
7446-09-5

sulfur dioxide

1333-74-0

hydrogen

A

23550-45-0

disulfur

B

7783-06-4

hydrogen sulfide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O; redn. of SO2 by H2 (1:2), SO2-conversion at 114°C practically 100%;;A 100%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O; redn. of SO2 by H2 (1:2), SO2-conversion at 114°C practically 100%;;A 100%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: H2O; redn. of SO2 by H2, investigation of equilibrium constants;;

goethite

1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Isothermal heat treatment for 2 h at 400°C.;100%
1333-74-0

hydrogen

75-05-8

acetonitrile

74-90-8

hydrogen cyanide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In gas 600-850°C;100%
with H atom;
With catalyst: 19percent Cr2O3/Al2O3 byproducts: methane; react. at 875 K; monitored by gas chromy.;

[Ru(H)(Cl)(tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine)3]

Na(1+)*{BH4}(1-)*99H2O=Na{BH4}*99H2O

1333-74-0

hydrogen

91171-35-6

tris-(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine

[RuH2(tris(sulfonatophenyl)phosphine)4]*NaCl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water (Ar); slow H2 bubbling through Ru- and org.-compd. soln. with stirring (room temp., 10 min), NaBH4 addn.; cooling, evapn. to dryness, drying (vac., 2 h, 50°C);100%

[Ru(Cl)(μ-Cl)(tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine)2]2

Na(1+)*{BH4}(1-)*99H2O=Na{BH4}*99H2O

1333-74-0

hydrogen

91171-35-6

tris-(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine

[RuH2(tris(sulfonatophenyl)phosphine)4]*2NaCl

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water (Ar); slow H2 bubbling through Ru- and org.-compd. soln. with stirring (room temp., 10 min), NaBH4 addn.; cooling, evapn. to dryness, drying (vac., 2 h, 50°C);100%
Conditions
ConditionsYield
from As soln. with hydrogen developed on cathode;100%
from As soln. with hydrogen developed on cathode;100%
100333-94-6

(triphos)RhH3

1333-74-0

hydrogen

124223-20-7, 101075-59-6

[(CH3C(CH2PPh2)3)Rh(CO)(H)]

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CO In benzene-d6 High Pressure; Charging of Rh-complex soln. with CO/H2 (500 psi), heating in a high-pressure react. vessel for 4.5 h at 75°C.; Monitored by (1)H-NMR.;100%
With CO In benzene-d6 Charging of Rh-complex soln. with CO/H2 (1 atm).; Monitored by (1)H-NMR.;100%
90219-33-3

FeRu(CO)6(σ-N,μ2-N`,η2-C=N`-1,4-di-isopropyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene)

1333-74-0

hydrogen

1,2-ethanediylbis(isopropylamido)hexacarbonylironruthenium

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In dichloromethane-d2 Kinetics; soln. was pressurized with H2; conversion was monitored by 1H NMR;100%
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    1.Type: Hydrogen Gas 2. Molecular formula: H2 3. Formula weight: 2.02 4. CAS: 1333-74-0 5. EINECS: 215-605-7 6. InChI: 1S/H2/h1H 7. Melting point: -259 degree Celsius 8. Boiling point: -253 degree Celsius 9. Another name:

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Chemistry


IUPAC Name: Molecular hydrogen
Molecular Weight: 2.01588 [g/mol]  
Molecular Formula: H2 
Product Categories: refrigerants; Inorganics; Chemical Synthesis; Compressed and Liquefied GasesMicro / Nanoelectronics; Electronic Chemicals; Gases; Synthetic Reagents; Compressed and Liquefied Gases; HU - HZGas Standards; Alphabetic; H; Pure Gases; SCOTTY Gases; Hydrogen; Hydrogen; Hydrogen; Hydrogen
Stability: Stable. Highly flammable. Readily forms explosive mixtures with air. Upper (U.K.) composition limit for use of a nitrogen/hydrogen mixture in the open lab is 5.7% hydrogen.
vapor density: 0.07 (21 °C, vs air)
Water Solubility: 0.00017 g/100 mL
EINECS: 215-605-7
Color: colorless
Phase: gas
Density: 0.08988 g/L (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
Melting point: -259.14 °C
Boiling point: -252.87 °C
Triple point: 259 °C
Critical point: 32.97 K, 1.293 MPa
Heat of fusion: (H2) 0.117 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: (H2) 0.904 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity of Hydrogen (CAS NO.1333-74-0): (25 °C) (H2) 28.836 J/mol/K

History

Hydrogen gas, H2, was first artificially produced and formally described by T. Von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus, 1493–1541) via the mixing of metals with strong acids.
 In 1671, Robert Boyle rediscovered and described the reaction between iron filings and dilute acids, which results in the production of hydrogen gas. In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to recognize hydrogen gas as a discrete substance, by identifying the gas from a metal-acid reaction as "flammable air" and further finding in 1781 that the gas produces water when burned. In 1783, Antoine Lavoisier gave the element the name hydrogen when he and Laplace reproduced Cavendish's finding that water is produced when hydrogen is burned.
In 1898, hydrogen was liquefied for the first time by James Dewar by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask. He produced solid hydrogen the next year. Deuterium was discovered in December 1931 by Harold Urey, and tritium was prepared in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck. Heavy water was discovered by Urey's group in 1932. Fran?ois Isaac de Rivaz built the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in 1806. Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe in 1819. The D?bereiner's lamp and limelight were invented in 1823.
The first hydrogen-filled balloon was invented by Jacques Charles in 1783.
 Hydrogen provided the lift for the first reliable form of air-travel following the 1852 invention of the first hydrogen-lifted airship by Henri Giffard German count Ferdinand von Zeppelin promoted the idea of rigid airships lifted by hydrogen that later were called Zeppelins; the first of which had its maiden flight in 1900.
The first non-stop transatlantic crossing was made by the British airship R34 in 1919.
The nickel hydrogen battery was used for the first time in 1977 aboard the U.S. Navy's Navigation technology satellite-2 (NTS-2).

Uses

  Hydrogen (CAS NO.1333-74-0) is used to make other chemicals and in oxyHydrogen welding and cutting. Apart from its use as a reactant, H2 has wide applications in physics and engineering. It is used as a shielding gas in welding methods such as atomic hydrogen welding. H2 is used as the rotor coolant in electrical generators at power stations, because it has the highest thermal conductivity of any gas. Liquid H2 is used in cryogenic research, including superconductivity studies.

Production

 Hydrogen (CAS NO.1333-74-0) is primarily manufactured by steam-reforming natural gas (CH4) or hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2).
 A variety of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons can be used as feed-stock in the steam-reforming process. The reaction occurs in two separate steps: reforming and shift conversion.
 Methane:
        CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 (reforming)
       CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 (shift conversion)
 Propane:
       C3H8 + 3O2 → 3CO2 + 7H2 (reforming)
     3CO + 3H2O → 3CO2 + 3H2 (shiftconversion)
The reforming step makes a hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixture(synthesis gas) that is used to produce a variety of other chemicals.
 In the steam-reforming process, the hydrocarbon feedstock is first desulfurized by heating to 370 °C in the presence of a metallic oxide catalyst that converts the organosulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Elemental sulfur can also be removed with activated carbon absorption. A caustic soda scrubber removes the hydrogen sulfide by salt formation in the basic aqueous solution.
           H2S + 2NaO → Na2S + 2H2O
 Steam is added and the mixture is heated in the furnace at 760 to 980 °C and 600 psi over a nickel catalyst. When higher-molecular-weight hydrocarbons are the feedstock, potassium oxide is used along with nickel to avoid larger amounts of carbon formation.
 There are primary and secondary furnaces in some plants. Air can be added to the secondary reformers. Oxygen reacts with some of the hydrocarbon feedstock to keep the temperature high. The nitrogen or the air is utilized when it, along with the hydrogen formed, reacts in the ammonia synthesizer. More steam is added and the mixture enters the shift converter, where iron or chromic oxide catalysts at 425 °C further react the gas to hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
 Some shift converters have high- and low-temperature sections, the high-temperature section converting most of the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Cooling to 38 °C is followed by carbon dioxide absorption with monoethanolamine (HOCH2CH2NH2). The carbon dioxide(an important by-product) is desorbed by heating the monoethanolamine and reversing this reaction.
   HOCH2CH2NH2 + CO2 + H2O → HOCH2CH2NH3+HCO3-
Alternatively, hot carbonate solutions can replace the monoethanolamine. A methanator converts the last traces of carbon dioxide to methane, a less interfering contaminant in hydrogen used for ammonia manufacture.
 Hydrogen is also produced by an electrolytic process that produces high-purity hydrogen and consists of passing direct current through an aqueous solution of alkali, and decomposing the water.
               2H2O → 2H2 + O2
A typical commercial cell electrolyzes a 15% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, uses an iron cathode and a nickel-plated-iron anode, has an asbestos diaphragm separating the electrode compartments, and oper-ates at temperatures from 60 to 70 °C. The nickel plating of the anode reduces the oxygen overvoltage.
 Partial oxidation processes rank next to steam-hydrocarbon processes in the amount of hydrogen made. They can use natural gas, refinery gas, or other hydrocarbon gas mixtures as feedstocks, but their chief advantage is that they can also accept liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks such as gas oil, diesel oil, and even heavy fuel oil. All processes employ noncatalytic par-tial combustion of the hydrocarbon feed with oxygen in the presence of steam in a combustion chamber at flame temperatures between 1300 and 1500 °C. For example, with methane as the principal component of the feedstock:
           CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
            CH4 + CO2 → 2CO + 2H2
            CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2
The overall process is a net producer of heat; for efficient operation, heat recovery (using waste heat boilers) is important.
 Most of the hydrogen is generated on site for use by various industries, particularly the petroleum industry. Other uses include ammonia production, metallurgical industries to reduce the oxides of metals to the free metals, methanol production, and hydrogen chloride manufacture.

Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Safety Profile

Practically no toxicity except that it may asphyxiate. Highly dangerous fire and severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Flammable or explosive when mixed with air, O2, chlorine. To fight fire, stop flow of gas.
Explodes on contact with bromine trifluoride; chlorine trifluoride; fluorine; hydrogen peroxide + catalysts; acetylene + ethylene. Explodes when heated with calcium carbonate + magnesium; 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene + catalysts; vegetable oils + catalysts; ethylene + nickel catalysts; difluorodiazene (above 90°C); 2-nitroanisole (above 250°C/34 bar + 12% catalyst); copper(II) oxide; nitryl fluoride (above 200°C); polycarbon monofluoride (above 500°C).
Forms sensitive explosive mixtures with bromine; chlorine; iodine heptafluoride (heat- or spark-sensitive); chlorine dioxide; dichlorine oxide; iodine heptafluoride (heat- or spark-sensitive); dinitrogen oxide; dinitrogen tetraoxide; oxygen (gas); 1,1,1-trisazidomethylethane + palladium catalyst. Mixtures with liquid nitrogen react with heat to form an explosive product.
Violent reaction or ignition with air + catalysts (platinum and similar metals containing adsorbed oxygen or hydrogen); bromine; iodine; dioxane + nickel; lithium; nitrogen trifluoride; oxygen difluoride; palladium + isopropyl alcohol; 3-methyl-2-penten-4-yn-1-ol; lead trifluoride; bromine fluoride (ignition on contact); nickel + oxygen; fluorine perchlorate (ignition on contact); xenon hexafluoride (violent reaction); nitrogen oxide + oxygen (ignition above 360°C); palladium powder + 2-propanol + air (spontaneous ignition); platinum catalyst; polycarbon monofluoride (ignition above 400°C).
Vigorous exothermic reaction with benzene + Raney nickel catalyst; metals (e.g., lithium; calcium; barium; strontium; sodium; potassium; above 300°C); palladium(II) oxide; palladium trifluoride; 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane + nickel catalyst.
Hazard Codes: HighlyF+
Risk Statements: 12 
R12:Extremely flammable.
Safety Statements: 9-16-33 
S9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place. 
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition. 
S33:Take precautionary measures against static discharges.
RIDADR: UN 1950 2.1
RTECS: MW8900000
F: 4.5-31
HazardClass: 2.1

Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  2.1; Label: Flammable Gas

Specification

  Hydrogen (CAS NO.1333-74-0), its Synonyms are Hydrogen atoms ; Molecular hydrogen ; Protium ; H . Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas. Hydrogen is easily ignited. Once ignited Hydrogen burns with a pale blue, almost invisible flame. The vapors are lighter than air. Hydrogen is flammable over a wide range of vapor / air concentrations. Hydrogen is not toxic but is a simple asphyxiate by the displacement of oxygen in the air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket.