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98-01-1

Basic Information
CAS No.: 98-01-1
Name: Furfural
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 98-01-1 (Furfural)
Formula: C5H4O2
Molecular Weight: 96.09
Synonyms: Pyromucic aldehyde;2-Furil-metanale [Italian];Bran oil;2-Furyl-methanal;Furyl-methanal;2-Furfural;Furfuraldehyde;Furol;Furfurol;Quakeral;2-Furanaldehyde;2-Furaldehyde;1/C5H4O2/c6-4-5-2-1-3-7-5/h1-4;2-Furil-metanale;Furfurale [Italian];RCRA waste no. U125;2-Furancarbonal;furan-2-carbaldehyde;Furfural (natural);NCI-C56177;2-Furankarbaldehyd [Czech];EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 043301;FEMA No. 2489;RCRA waste number U125;2-Furylcarboxaldehyde;2-Formylfuran;Furancarbonal;Artificial oil of ants;Furfurale;5-17-09-00292 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);2-Furancarboxaldehyde;2-Formylofuran [Polish];Furaldehydes [UN1199] [Poison];Furfurylaldehyde;Furale;
EINECS: 202-627-7
Density: 1.145 g/cm3
Melting Point: -36 °C(lit.)
Boiling Point: 161.799 °C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point: 58.333 °C
Solubility: water: 8.3 g/100 mL
Appearance: colourless to reddish-brown oily liquid with almond odour
Hazard Symbols: ToxicT,IrritantXi
Risk Codes: 21-23/25-36/37-40
Safety: 26-36/37/39-45-1/2
Transport Information: UN 1199 6.1/PG 2
PSA: 30.21000
LogP: 1.09210
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    EINECSNO.202-626-1 FORMULAC5H6O2 MOLWT.98.10 H.S.CODE2932.13 TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 177 mg/kg SYNONYMS 2-Furylmeth… Appearance:colorless to pale yellow liquid Storage:2-8°C Package:iso tank or 240kg drums Application:Furan polymers, in maki

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History

In 1832, the German chemist Johann Wolfgang D?bereiner ,first isolated furfural ,he formed a very small quantity of it as a byproduct of formic acid synthesis. 
In 1840, the Scottish chemist John Stenhouse found that the same chemical could be produced by distilling a wide variety of crop materials, including bran, corn, oats, and sawdust, with aqueous sulfuric acid, and he determined that this chemical had an empirical formula of C5H4O2
In 1901, the German chemist Carl Harries deduced furfural's structure.

Consensus Reports

NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage); Clear Evidence: mouse NCITR*    National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382,90, . , Some Evidence: rat NCITR*    National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD 20014) No. NTP-TR-382 ,1990. . EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 2 ppm (skin)
ACGIH TLV: TWA 2 ppm (skin); Animal Carcinogen: BEI: 200 mg/g creatinine of total furoic acid in urine at end of shift
DFG MAK: Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
DOT Classification:  3; Label: Flammable Liquid

Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use OSHA: #ID-72 or NIOSH: Furfural, 2529.

Specification

Furfural is an heterocyclic aldehyde, with the ring structure shown at right. Its chemical formula is OC4H3CHO. It is a colorless oily liquid with the odor of almonds, but upon exposure to air samples quickly become yellow. With the CAS NO. 98-01-1, Furfural dissolves readily in most polar organic solvents, but is only slightly soluble in either water or alkanes. When heated above 250 °C, furfural decomposes into furan and carbon monoxide, sometimes explosively.

Physical properties Furfural are: 
(1)ACD/LogP: 0.731; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.73; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 0.73; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 2.12; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 2.12; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 59.53; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 59.53; (8)#H bond acceptors:2; (9)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 1; (10)Index of Refraction: 1.515; (11)Molar Refractivity: 25.305 cm3; (12)Molar Volume: 83.894 cm3; (13)Polarizability: 10.032 10-24cm3; (14)Surface Tension: 36.5740013122559 dyne/cm; (15)Density: 1.145 g/cm3; (16)Flash Point: 58.333 °C; (17)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 39.837 kJ/mol; (18)Boiling Point: 161.799 °C at 760 mmHg; (19)Vapour Pressure: 2.23399996757507 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Furfural: 
Many plant materials contain the polysaccharide hemicellulose, a polymer of sugars containing five carbon atoms each. When heated with sulfuric acid, hemicellulose undergoes hydrolysis to yield these sugars, principally xylose. Under the same conditions of heat and acid, xylose and other five carbon sugars undergo dehydration, losing three water molecules to become furfural:
C5H10O5 → C5H4O2 + 3 H2O

Uses of Furfural:
Furfural is used as a solvent in petrochemical refining to extract dienes ( used to make synthetic rubber) from other hydrocarbons . Furfural also can be used either by themselves or in together with phenol, acetone, or urea to make solid resins. It is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of the solvents furan and tetrahydrofuran.

Safety information of Furfural:
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:(1)In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice; (2)Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection; (3)In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible); (4)Keep locked up and out of the reach of children;

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI=1S/C5H4O2/c6-4-5-2-1-3-7-5/h1-4H;
(2)InChIKey=HYBBIBNJHNGZAN-UHFFFAOYSA-N;
(3)Smilesc1(ccco1)C=O;

The toxiciy data of Furfural is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LC50 inhalation 370ppm/6H (370ppm)   "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.
dog LD50 intravenous 250mg/kg (250mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
dog LD50 oral 950mg/kg (950mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.
dog LD50 subcutaneous 214mg/kg (214mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
frog LDLo parenteral 23gm/kg (23000mg/kg)   Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 21, Pg. 65, 1923.
guinea pig LD50 oral 541mg/kg (541mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)"

LIVER: "HEPATITIS (HEPATOCELLULAR NECROSIS), ZONAL"

BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 32(5), Pg. 158, 1967.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 100mg/kg (100mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
human TCLo inhalation 310ug/m3 (.31mg/m3)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 26(6), Pg. 3, 1961.
mouse LCLo inhalation 370ppm/6H (370ppm)   "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 102mg/kg (102mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
mouse LD50 intravenous 152mg/kg (152mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
mouse LD50 oral 400mg/kg (400mg/kg)   Biochemical Journal. Vol. 34, Pg. 1196, 1940.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 119mg/kg (119mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
rabbit LD50 intramuscular 78mg/kg (78mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
rabbit LDLo oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: FLACCID PARALYSIS WITHOUT ANESTHESIA (USUALLY NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE)

SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: MYDRIASIS (PUPILLARY DILATION): EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 21, Pg. 65, 1923.
rabbit LDLo skin 620mg/kg (620mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 32(5), Pg. 158, 1967.
rat LC50 inhalation 175ppm/6H (175ppm)   American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50, Pg. A359, 1989.
rat LC50 inhalation 175ppm/6H (175ppm) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50, Pg. A359, 1989.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 20mg/kg (20mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 16, Pg. 759, 1978.
rat LD50 oral 65mg/kg (65mg/kg)   Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna. Vol. 13, Pg. 371, 1980.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 148mg/kg (148mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 279, 1969.