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100-33-4

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100-33-4 Usage

Pharmacology and mechanism of action

Pentamidine is a synthetic aromatic diamidine chemically related to the antidiabetic drug phenformin and was introduced into the treatment of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis in 1940. Pentamidine has also an established place in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia [1]. The mechanism of action of pentamidine is not known. The drug concentrates in trypanosomes via an energy-dependent, high affinity uptake system, which operates more rapidly in drug sensitive strains. Inside the cell, pentamidine interacts with nucleic acids thus affecting DNA biosynthesis [2]. It has also been shown that the drug inhibits the plasmamembrane Ca++-ATPase of the parasites [3]. In vitro, the drug causes ultra-structural disruptions of the mitochondrial structures of Leishmania mexicana and tropica [2, 4]. The drug has also been shown to inhibit trypanosomal S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase, thus reducing the synthesis of polyamines [5].

Indications

Different sources of media describe the Indications of 100-33-4 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. Trypanosomiasis In the treatment of early-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Leishmaniasis In the treatment of patients with visceral, diffuse cutaneous, or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. aethiopica and L. guyanensis who are unresponsive or intolerant to antimony preparations. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Pentamidine is also used in the prophylaxis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia as a second choice.
2. Pentamidine (Pentam 300) binds to DNA and may inhibit kinetoplast DNA replication and function. It also may act by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase and interfering with polyamine metabolism. An effect on organism respiration, especially at high doses, also may play a role.

Side effects

Different sources of media describe the Side effects of 100-33-4 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. Following parenteral administration of pentamidine, about 45% of the patients may experience side effects some of which can be fatal . Rapid i.v. injection may cause sudden hypotension followed by breathlessness, tachycardia, dizziness, headache, vomiting and fainting which are due to histamine release. Local pain and sterile abscess may be formed after intramuscular injection [6]. Nephrotoxicity which is usually mild to moderate and reversible is the most common side effect. Hypoglycaemic reactions are also common. A few patients may develop hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus. This paradoxical effect is thought to be due to a cytolytic release of insulin followed by destruction of the beta-cells. Leucopenia, abnormal liver function, hypocalcaemia and Stevens-Johnson syndrome can also occur . There have been occasional reports of acute pancreatitis [7]. In two smaller studies conducted in C?te d’Ivoire, the most common subjective side effect reported was abdominal pain. A few patients complained of hypersalivation [8]. Pentamidine has been reported to possess anticholinesterase activity [9] and the abdominal pain and the hypersalivation reported in the former study may be due to this effect.
2. Side effects range from local irritation and sterile abscess at the site of injection to transient effects (vomiting, abdominal discomfort) and serious systemic effects (hypotension, effects on the heart, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia). In a study of the treatment of South American cutaneous leishmaniasis, 17% of patients prematurely terminated treatment due to toxicity and another 30% reported side effects.
3. Adverse reactions occur frequently. Rapid drug infusion may produce tachycardia, vomiting, shortness of breath, headache, and a fall in blood pressure. Changes in blood sugar (hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia) necessitate caution in its use, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus. Renal function should be monitored and blood counts checked for dyscrasias.

Contraindications and precautions

Patients should remain supine during pentamidine administration and their blood pressure and blood glucose levels monitored. It is advisable to have adrenaline ready in case of a sudden collapse. Where possible, kidney and liver function tests should be assessed regularly during the treatment. Pentamidine is not recommended for use in patients with late-stage trypanosomiasis.

Interactions

There have been no reports.

Preparations

Available as pentamidine isethionate (174 mg isethionate is equivalent to 100 mg base). ? Pentacarinat? (Rh?ne-Poulenc Rorer). Vials containing 300 mg pentamidine isethionate powder which is dissolved with 2–3 ml of sterile water. ? Pentam-300? (LyphoMed, USA). Vials containing 300 mg pentamidine isethionate powder which is dissolved with 2–3 ml of sterile water.

References

1. Goa KL, Campoli-Richards D (1987). Pentamidine Isethionate. A review of its antiprotozoal activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Drugs, 33, 242–258. 2. Sands M, Kron MA, Brown RB (1985). Pentamidine: A review. Rev Infect Dis, 7, 625–634. 3. Benaim G, Lopez-Estrano C, Docampo R, Moreno SNJ (1993). A calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump in plasma-membrane vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei; selective inhibition by pentamidine. Biochem J, 296, 756–763. 4. Steck EA, Kinnamon KE, Rane DS, Hanson WL (1981). Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium berghei, Trypanosoma rhodesiense: antiprotozoal effects of some amidine types. Exp Parasitol, 52, 404–413. 5. Bitonti AJ, Dumont JA, McCann PP (1986). Characterisation of Trypanosoma brucei brucei SadenosylL-methionine decarboxylase and its inhibition by Berenil, pentamidine and methylglyoxal bis(quanylhydrazone). Biochem J, 237, 518–521. 6. Navin TR, Fontaine RE (1984). Intravenous versus intramuscular administration of pentamidine. N Engl J Med, 311, 1701–1702. 7. Murphey SA, Josephs AS (1981). Acute pancreatitis associated with pentamidine therapy. Arch Intern Med, 141, 56–58. 8. Bronner U, Gustafsson LL, Doua F, Ericsson ?, Miézan T, Rais M, Rombo L (1995). Pharmacokinetics and adverse reactions of a single dose of pentamidine in patients with 9. Alston TA (1988). Inhibition of cholinesterase by pentamidine. Lancet, ii, 1423.

Description

Pentamidine is an aromatic diamine that is effective against protozoal diseases, such as amoebic dysentery, malaria, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. In clinical studies, it has also been shown to be an effective prophylaxis against pneumocystis pneumonia.

Chemical Properties

Crystalline Solid

Originator

Nebupent,Fujisawa Healthcare Inc ,USA

Uses

Different sources of media describe the Uses of 100-33-4 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. antiprotozoal, inhibits nucleic acid & protein synthesis
2. Has been widely used as a drug to treat protozoal diseases, such as malaria, amoebic dysentery and trypanosomiasis. It has also been shown to be effective for both prophylaxis of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCC)
3. Has been widely used as a drug to treat protozoal diseases, such as malaria, amoebic dysentery and trypanosomiasis. It has also been shown to be effective for both prophylaxis of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia (PCC).

Manufacturing Process

2.5 g of p,p'-dicyano-1,5-diphenoxy-pentane (obtained by the interaction of phydroxybenzonitrile and pentamethylene-dibromide in aqueous alkaline solution, melting point 114°C) are dissolved in 15 cc of nitrobenzene and 2.5 cc of absolute ethyl alcohol added. The solution is saturated with dry hydrochloric acid gas at 0°C and allowed to stand for 48 h. It is then diluted with dry ether and the precipitated 1,5-diphenoxypentane, 4,4'di(ethoxycarbonimidoyl) dihydrochlorid is filtered and washed with ether.4 g of 1,5-diphenoxypentane, 4,4'-di(ethoxycarbonimidoyl) dihydrochloride are mixed with 30 cc. of 6 % ethyl alcoholic ammonia and heated in a closed vessel at 50°C for 5 h. The alcohol is removed and the residual 1,5diphenoxypentane, 4,4'-diamidino dihydrochloride is twice recrystallised fromdilute hydrochloric acid and finally purifled by dissolving in water and precipitating with acetone. Its melts at 236°C, dec.Pentamidine isetionate salt may be produced by the reaction pentamidine base with isethionic acid.

Brand name

Nebupent [as isethionate] (Fujisawa); Pentacarinat [as isethionate] (Rhone-Poulenc Rorer); Pentam 300 [as isethionate] (Fujisawa).

Therapeutic Function

Antiprotozoal

Antimicrobial activity

Pentamidine has broad activity in experimental models against P. falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp. and Babesia spp. It also has activity against Pn. jirovecii.

Acquired resistance

Relapse rates of 7–16% have been reported in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis in West Africa. Patients usually respond to a subsequent course of treatment with melarsoprol. A membrane transporter is involved in crossresistance of arsenic-resistant T. brucei to diamidines, affecting diminazene and stilbamidine more than pentamidine.

Pharmaceutical Applications

A synthetic diamidine, available as the isethionate (2-hydroxymethane sulfonate) salt for parenteral use. It is also administered by instillation of a nebulized solution directly into the lungs.

Mechanism of action

Pentamidine is not well absorbed from the intestinal tract after oral administration and generally is given by intramuscular injection. The drug binds to tissues, particularly the kidney, and is slowly excreted, mostly as the unmodified drug. It does not enter the central nervous system (CNS). Its sequestration in tissues accounts for its prophylactic use in trypanosomiasis.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption: Negligible Cmax 4 mg/kg intramuscular: c. 0.5 mg/L after 1 h Plasma half-life: c. 6.5 h Volume of distribution: 3 L/kg Plasma protein binding: c. 70% Pentamidine is rapidly and extensively metabolized by rat liver, and high concentrations are retained in renal and hepatic tissue for up to 6 months after administration. In humans distribution is mainly in the liver, kidney, adrenal glands and spleen, with lower accumulation in the lung. This tissue retention is the basis for its prophylactic use. Although transport across the blood–brain barrier has been demonstrated in experimental models, it is probably unable to cross the blood–brain barrier in sufficient quantity to be trypanocidal: <1% of the plasma concentration has been measured in the CSF of sleeping sickness patients. About 15–20% of the dose is excreted in the urine but because of retention in tissues there is an extremely long terminal half-life (>12 days).

Clinical Use

Different sources of media describe the Clinical Use of 100-33-4 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. Pentamidine is active against Pneumocystis carinii, trypanosomes, and leishmaniasis unresponsive to pentavalent antimonials. It is an alternative agent for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia. Although it is more toxic than trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, it has been widely used in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in whom P. carinii infection is common. Pentamidine is an alternative drug for visceral leishmaniasis, especially when sodium stibogluconate has failed or is contraindicated. Pentamidine is also a reserve agent for the treatment of trypanosomiasis before the CNS is invaded. This characteristic largely restricts its use to Gambian trypanosomiasis.
2. Human African trypanosomiasis (early stages before CNS involvement) Prophylaxis and therapy of Pn. jirovecii pneumonia Visceral leishmaniasis unresponsive to pentavalent antimonials and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. guyanensis There is limited evidence for its use in the treatment of babesiosis.

Synthesis

Pentamidine, 4-4′-(pentamethylendioxy)dibenzamidine (37.4.2), is made by reacting 4-hydroxybenzonitrile with 1,5-dibromopentane in the presence of sodium hydroxide to make 1,5-bis-(4-cyanophenoxy)pentane (37.4.1). Subsequent reaction of this with an ethanol solution of hydrogen chloride with the intermediate formation of an iminoester, and then with an ethanol solution of ammonia gives the desired pentamidine.

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 100-33-4 includes 6 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 3 digits, 1,0 and 0 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 3 and 3 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 100-33:
(5*1)+(4*0)+(3*0)+(2*3)+(1*3)=14
14 % 10 = 4
So 100-33-4 is a valid CAS Registry Number.
InChI:InChI=1/C19H24N4O2.2C2H6O4S/c20-18(21)14-4-8-16(9-5-14)24-12-2-1-3-13-25-17-10-6-15(7-11-17)19(22)23;2*3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h4-11H,1-3,12-13H2,(H3,20,21)(H3,22,23);2*3H,1-2H2,(H,4,5,6)

100-33-4SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 17, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 17, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name pentamidine

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Pentamidine

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:100-33-4 SDS

100-33-4Downstream Products

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100-33-4Relevant articles and documents

Novel Nanocarrier Platform for Effective Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Harel, Yifat,Israel, Liron Limor,Kannan, Sriram,Lellouche, Emmanuel,Lellouche, Jean-Paul,Michaeli, Shulamit,Tsubery, Merav Nadav,Varvak, Alexander

, p. 2327 - 2341 (2021/11/13)

Leishmaniasis is among the five parasitic diseases that still require the development of new drugs. Ultrasmall cerium (Ce3/4+) cation-doped maghemite (?3-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were tested as a potential drug to treat visceral leishmaniasis, a disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The NPs were engineered for binding a polycationic branched polyethylenimine (PEI) polymer, thereby rupturing the single lysosome of these parasites and enabling entry of the anti-Leishmania drug, pentamidine. Exploiting the known lanthanide cation/complex-based coordinative chemical reactivity enabled the binding of both active agents onto the surface of the NPs. To optimize the fabrication of the cytotoxic NPs, optimization via a DoE (Design of Experiments) process was used to identify the optimal NP with toxicity against the two stages of the parasite, promastigotes, which propagate in the insect, and amastigotes, which infect the mammalian host. The screen identified a single optimized NP (DoE Opt) that was further examined in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis. Intravenous injection of the NPs had no adverse effects on the cellular composition or biochemical parameters of the blood, demonstrating no signs of systemic toxicity. The optimized NP was able to eradicate visceral disease caused by Leishmania donovani infection. The study demonstrates the versatile ability of the cerium-doped NPs to bind at least two cytotoxic ligands. This approach could be used for optimizing the binding of different drugs for the treatment of other diseases, including cancer. Since resistance to treatment with nanocarriers was not reported to date, such an approach could potentially overcome drug resistance that emerges when using soluble small molecule drugs.

Discovery of decamidine as a new and potent PRMT1 inhibitor

Zhang, Jing,Qian, Kun,Yan, Chunli,He, Maomao,Jassim, Brenson A.,Ivanov, Ivaylo,Zheng, Yujun George

supporting information, p. 440 - 444 (2017/03/08)

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a key player for the dynamic regulation of arginine methylation. Its dysregulation and aberrant expression are implicated in various pathological conditions, and a plethora of evidence suggests that PRMT1 inhibition is of significant therapeutic value. Herein, we reported the modification of a series of diamidine compounds with varied lengths in the middle alkyl linker for PRMT1 inhibition. Decamidine (2j), which possesses the longest linker in the series, displayed 2- and 4-fold increase in PRMT1 inhibition (IC50 = 13 μM), compared with furamidine and stilbamidine. The inhibitory activity toward PRMT1 was validated by secondary orthogonal assays. Docking studies showed that the increased activity is due to the extra interaction of the amidine group with the SAM binding pocket, which is absent when the linker is not long enough. These results provide structural insights into developing the amidine type of PRMT1 inhibitors.

Synthesis and biological evaluation of l-valine-amidoximeesters as double prodrugs of amidines

Kotthaus, Joscha,Hungeling, Helen,Reeh, Christiane,Kotthaus, Jürke,Schade, Dennis,Wein, Silvia,Wolffram, Siegfried,Clement, Bernd

, p. 1907 - 1914 (2011/05/05)

In general, drugs containing amidines suffer from poor oral bioavailability and are often converted into amidoxime prodrugs to overcome low uptake from the gastrointestinal tract. The esterification of amidoximes with amino acids represents a newly developed double prodrug principle creating derivatives of amidines with both improved oral availability and water solubility. N-valoxybenzamidine (1) is a model compound for this principle, which has been transferred to the antiprotozoic drug pentamidine (8). Prodrug activation depends on esterases and mARC and is thus independent from activation by P450 enzymes. Therefore, drug-drug interactions or side effects will be minimized. The synthesis of these two compounds was established, and their biotransformation was studied in vitro and in vivo. Bioactivation of N-valoxybenzamidine (1) and N,N′-bis(valoxy)pentamidine (7) via hydrolysis and reduction has been demonstrated in vitro with porcine and human subcellular enzyme preparations and the mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component (mARC). Moreover, activation of N-valoxybenzamidine (1) by porcine hepatocytes was studied. In vivo, the bioavailability in rats after oral application of N-valoxybenzamidine (1) was about 88%. Similarly, N,N′-bis(valoxy) pentamidine (7) showed oral bioavailability. Analysis of tissue samples revealed high concentrations of pentamidine (8) in liver and kidney.

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