Crystallise it from EtOH/H2O solutions or from water (0.3mL/g) below 60o by cooling to 0o, and dry it at 35o over P2O5 under vacuum. [Foerster & Mommsen Chem Ber 57 258 1924.] This salt is used as a secondary standard in volumetric analysis [Kilpatrick J Am Chem Soc 45 2132 1923], and is used as “Hypo” in photography [Hargreaves & Dunningham J Soc Chem Ind 42 147T 1923.]
Sodium thiosulfate occurs as odorless and colorless crystals, a
crystalline powder or granules. It is efflorescent in dry air and
deliquescent in moist air.
On an industrial scale, sodium thiosulfate is produced chiefly from
liquid waste products of sodium sulfide or sulfur dye manufacture.
Small-scale synthesis is done by boiling an aqueous solution of
sodium sulfite with sulfur.
Sodium thiosulfate is incompatible with iodine, with acids, and with
lead, mercury, and silver salts. It may reduce the activity of some
preservatives, including bronopol, phenylmercuric salts, and
Sulfactol (Sterling Winthrop).
Sodium thiosulfate is used in ophthalmic, intravenous, and oral
pharmaceutical preparations. Apart from osmotic disturbances,
sodium thiosulfate is relatively nontoxic. It is moderately toxic by the subcutaneous route and mildly irritating to respiratory tract and
skin. Large oral doses have a cathartic action.
LD50 (IP, mouse) 5.6 g/kg
LD50 (IV, mouse) 2.4 g/kg
translucent crystals or white powder
Sodium thiosulfate is used as an antioxidant in pharmaceuticals
(ophthalmic, intravenous, and oral preparations). It has also been
used for its antifungal properties and as a reagent in analytical
Sodium thiosulfate decomposes on heating. The bulk powder
should be stored in a cool place, and the container should be kept
tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. It should not be
stored near acids.
GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IV
solutions; ophthalmic solutions and suspensions; oral capsules,
solutions, and tablets). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable