It crystallises from MeOH/Et2O, MeOH or Et2O/EtOAc. The free base has m 104-105o, and the (-)-phenylthiourea derivative has m 220-221o (from EtOAc/pet ether,  D -29.3o (CHCl3)). IR: 3413 (OH) and 2611 (NH+) cm-1; UV at 230nm ( 16 200) and 282nm ( 6 890) max max [Brossi et al. Helv Chim Acta 42 1515 1959, Barash et al. J Chem Soc 3530 1959]. [Beilstein 23 III/IV 3419.]
Air & Water Reactions
white powder or crystals
When heated to decomposition, EMETINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE emits very toxic fumes of chlorides, hydrogen chloride and oxides of nitrogen. Turns yellow on exposure to light or heat
Clusters of needles after drying at 221°F. Turns yellow on exposure to light or heat. An injectable form of emetine, an anti amebic. Emetine is the active ingredient of ipecac.
EMETINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE is highly toxic orally. It is an eye irritant. (Non-Specific -- Emetine) Emetine is classified as extremely toxic. Probable oral lethal dose for humans is 5-50 mg/kg, or between 7 drops and one teaspoon for a 150-lb person.
When heated to decomposition, EMETINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE emits very toxic fumes of chlorides, hydrogen chloride and oxides of nitrogen. Turns yellow on exposure to light or heat [EPA, 1998].
As the principal alkaloid of ipecac, Emetine dihydrochloride is derived from Uragoga ipecacuanha ground roots, which is used in the treatment of amebiasis. It can also be used as an emetic to induce vomiting.
Emetine dihydrochloride functions by inhibiting ribosome movement along mRNA, which results in irreversibly blocking protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells instead of prokaryotic cells. Besides, it has been proved that it can induce hypotension through blocking adrenoreceptors.