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Thymopentin is a kind of peptide. Peptides and polypeptides play a critical role in the immune system and are therefore predestined as a source for new approaches in immunotherapy. Thymopentin is capable of modulating the immune response. It is a fragment of the thymopoietins (TMPOs) which is a family of nuclear protein. Studies have shown that Thymopentin is capable of affecting the function of T cells and monocytes monitored by increased cGMP level and the triggering of cellular signaling. It is also capable of improve an imbalanced immune system. As an immunomodulating agent, it is clinically used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as atopic dermatitis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Sezary’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and decreased immune competency. Recent study has also shown that its immuno-modulating effect can also help fight against the infection of mycobacterium tuberculosis.