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Ethanol

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Name

Ethanol

EINECS 200-578-6
CAS No. 64-17-5 Density 0.78 g/cm3
Solubility miscible with water Melting Point -114 °C
Formula C2H6O Boiling Point 72.62 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 46.07 Flash Point 8.889 °C
Transport Information UN 1170/1986/1987 Appearance clear colorless liquid
Safety 16-7-36-26-45-36/37-61-24/25 Risk Codes 11-10-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-68/20/21/22-20/21/22-52/53
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 64-17-5 (Ethanol) Hazard Symbols FlammableF, ToxicT, HarmfulXn
Synonyms

Ethylalcohol (6CI,7CI,8CI);100C.NPA;AHD 2000;Alcare Hand Degermer;Alcohol;Alcohol anhydrous;Algrain;Anhydrol;Anhydrol PM 4085;Bioethanol;Black Warrant;CDA 19;CDA 19-200;Denatured alcohol;Denatured ethanol;Desinfektol EL;Duplicating Fluid 100C.NPA;Esumiru WK 88;Ethicap;Ethyl hydrate;Ethylhydroxide;Germ-X;Hinetoless;IMS 99;Infinity Pure;Jaysol;Jaysol S;Lux;Methylcarbinol;Molasses alcohol;NSC 85228;Neocol CQ;Potato alcohol;SD 3A;SDA 3A;SY Fresh M;Sekundasprit;Sterillium Rub;Synasol;Tecsol;Tecsol C;Vinic alcohol;Ethanol 95%;

 

Ethanol History

Before the development of modern medicines, ethanol was used for a variety of medical purposes.

Ethanol Specification

Ethanol, also known as alcohol, is a colourless, flammable, volatile liquid with a strong alcoholic odor. It is a two carbon straight chain alcohol and a high octane, clean burning fuel. Ethanol can dissolve many organic compounds and some inorganic compounds. Using the common organic chemistry notation of representing the ethyl group (C2H5) with Et, Ethanol is often abbreviated as EtOH. As it is a primary alcohol, it has many kinds of reaction, such as: ester formation, dehydration, combustion, acid-base chemistry, halogenation, and oxidation.

Physical properties about Ethanol are: (1)ACD/LogP: -0.18; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -0.18; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -0.18; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 19.00; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 19.00; (8)#H bond acceptors: 1 ; (9)#H bond donors: 1; (10)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 1; (11)Index of Refraction:1.354; (12)Molar Refractivity: 12.85 cm3; (13)Molar Volume: 59.055 cm3; (14)Polarizability: 5.094 10-24cm3; (15)Surface Tension: 22.3859996795654 dyne/cm; (16)Density: 0.78 g/cm3; (17)Flash Point: 8.889 °C; (18)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 38.56 kJ/mol; (19)Boiling Point: 72.62 °C at 760 mmHg; (20)Vapour Pressure: 82.8190002441406 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Ethanol: Ethanol can be obtained by many methods.

1. Fermentation: The starch-rich agricultural products such as cereals, potatoes, etc., or wild fruits go through washing, crushing and cooking under pressure to make the starch gelatinization. Then add the right amount of water, and add amylase when the temperature is about 60 °C. The starch is hydrolyzed of maltose and glucose. Finally, add yeast to zymosis, then the ethanol is obtained.

2. Hydration: Ethanol is obtained by addition reaction from ethylene and water. Hydration includes indirect method and direct mathod. Indirect method is also known as sulfate method. The reaction has two steps. Firstly, 95-98% sulfuric acid and 50-60% ethylene (weight ratio 2:1) go through absorption reaction in a tower reactor to generate sulfate at 60-80 °C and 0.78-1 .96 MPa. The second step is the sulfate is hydrolyzed in the hydrolysis tower at 80-100 °C and 0.2-0 .29 MPa to obtain ethanol. At the same time, byproduct ether is generated. Alkene can react with water to get ethanol directly.

The direct hydration has one step. Ethylene is hydrated in the presence of phosphoric acid at hjgh temperature and pressure. This process is simple and low corrosive. It does not need special steel and has less byproduct ether, but it requires high purity ethylene and large power.

No matter fermentation or ethylene hydration, the obtained ethanol is usually the azeotrope of ethanol and water that is 95% industrial ethanol. In order to get absolute ethanol, the following methods can be used to further dehydration. (1) Using unslaked lime to treat industrial ethanol, make the water change to calcium hydroxide. Steam out ethanol, and then dry with metal sodium. This is the oldest method. (2) The commonly industrial method is dehydration of azeotropic distillation. (3) Use ion exchange agent or molecular sieve to dehydrate, and then rectify.

Uses of Ethanol:
1. The largest single use of ethanol is as a motor fuel and fuel additive. Some countries have started to use ethanol as automobile fuel alone or mixed into the gasoline (10%) to save gasoline. It may also be used as a rocket fuel, and is used in lightweight rocket-powered racing aircraft currently. Ethanol has three advantages, at least in theory: It's renewable, it can be domestically produced, and it burns cleaner than gas.

2. Ethanol, an important organic solvent, is widely used in medicine, paints, toilet articles, cosmetics, oils, etc. It accounts for about 50% of the total consumption. It is also used as solvent of adhesives, nitro spray paint, varnish, cosmetics, ink, paint strippers, etc.

3. Ethanol is also an important basic chemical raw material for the manufacture of acetaldehyde, ethylamine, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, ethyl chloride, etc., and derives many intermediate of pharmaceuticals, dyes, paints, fragrances, synthetic rubber, detergents, pesticides, etc. Its products are more than 300. But now, the use of ethanol as a chemical intermediate decreases gradually. Many products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid, ethyl ethanol no longer use ethanol as raw material, but use other raw materials instead.

4. 75% Ethanol solution has a strong sterilization ability, so it is commonly used as disinfectant. Specially refined ethanol can also be used in the manufacture of beverages. In the microelectronics industry, ethanol is used as dehydration detergents, and can be used in cooperation with degreasers.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: Ethanol is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. It has possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. The symptoms of ingestion are nausea, vomiting and intoxication. It can cause serious liver damage by long-term use of ingestion. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Besides, in case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
1. Smiles:C(C)O
2. InChI:InChI=1S/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LDLo intravenous 3945mg/kg (3945mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 130, 1955.
cat LDLo oral 6gm/kg (6000mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: GASTRITIS

LIVER: "HEPATITIS (HEPATOCELLULAR NECROSIS), DIFFUSE"

KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 56, Pg. 117, 1936.
chicken LDLo intravenous 8216mg/kg (8216mg/kg) VASCULAR: OTHER CHANGES Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 60, Pg. 312, 1937.
chicken LDLo subcutaneous 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
child LDLo oral 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

LIVER: FATTY LIVER DEGERATION

BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Archiv fuer Toxikologie. Vol. 17, Pg. 183, 1958.
child TDLo oral 14400mg/kg/30 (14400mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. Vol. 74, Pg. 977, 1985.
dog LDLo intraperitoneal 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg)   British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 1, Pg. 207, 1944.
dog LDLo intravenous 1600mg/kg (1600mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 60, 1971.
dog LDLo oral 5500mg/kg (5500mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 130, 1955.
dog LDLo subcutaneous 6gm/kg (6000mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 130, 1955.
frog LDLo parenteral 36gm/kg (36000mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 50, Pg. 296, 1935.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 7100mg/kg (7100mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 128, 1955.
guinea pig LCLo inhalation 21900ppm (21900ppm)   FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 99, 1970.
guinea pig LD50 intraperitoneal 3414mg/kg (3414mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
guinea pig LD50 oral 5560mg/kg (5560mg/kg)   Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.
hamster LD50 intraperitoneal 5068mg/kg (5068mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
human LDLo oral 1400mg/kg (1400mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SLEEP

BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 44, 1974.
infant LDLo subcutaneous 19440mg/kg (19440mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Vol. 5, Pg. 466, 1935.
infant TDLo oral 11712uL/kg (11.712mL/kg) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

CARDIAC: ARRHYTHMIAS (INCLUDING CHANGES IN CONDUCTION)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Journal of UOEH Vol. 9, Pg. 53, 1987.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 intraperitoneal 4300mg/kg (4300mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 13, Pg. 358, 1968.
man TDLo oral 1430ug/kg (1.43mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

BEHAVIORAL: ANTIPSYCHOTIC
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 197, Pg. 488, 1976.
man TDLo oral 3371uL/kg (3.371mL/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)

BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 21, Pg. 272, 1979.
man TDLo oral 50mg/kg (50mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: ALTERATION IN GASTRIC SECRETION

GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 56, Pg. 117, 1936.
man TDLo oral 700mg/kg (700mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 8, Pg. 77, 1986.
man TDLo oral 22500mg/kg/4W (22500mg/kg) ENDOCRINE: OTHER CHANGES

BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Clinical Endocrinology Vol. 25, Pg. 143, 1986.
mouse LC50 inhalation 39gm/m3/4H (39000mg/m3)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 26(8), Pg. 53, 1982.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 528mg/kg (528mg/kg)   Strahlentherapie. Vol. 127, Pg. 245, 1965.
mouse LD50 intravenous 1973mg/kg (1973mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 128, 1955.
mouse LD50 oral 3450mg/kg (3450mg/kg)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 32(3), Pg. 31, 1967.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 8285mg/kg (8285mg/kg)   FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 99, 1970.
pigeon LDLo subcutaneous 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 963mg/kg (963mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 2374mg/kg (2374mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rabbit LD50 oral 6300mg/kg (6300mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 130, 1955.
rabbit LDLo skin 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg)   "Alcohols: Their Chemistry, Properties and Manufacture," Monick, J.A., New York, Reinhold Book, 1968Vol. -, Pg. 72, 1968.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg)   Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 22, Pg. 651, 1980.
rat LC50 inhalation 20000ppm/10H (20000ppm)   Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 44, 1974.
rat LD50 intraarterial 11mg/kg (11mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 60, 1971.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 3600ug/kg (3.6mg/kg)   Pharmacology: International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. Vol. 2, Pg. 27, 1969.
rat LD50 intravenous 1440mg/kg (1440mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 60, 1971.
rat LD50 oral 7060mg/kg (7060mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 16, Pg. 718, 1970.
women TDLo oral 1200mg/kg/3H (1200mg/kg) ENDOCRINE: CHANGE IN GONADOTROPINS

ENDOCRINE: OTHER CHANGES

BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 289, 1983.
women TDLo oral 256gm/kg/12W (256000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"

ENDOCRINE: EFFECT ON MENSTRUAL CYSLE
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 238, Pg. 2143, 1977.

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