anticholinesterase, cognition enhancer
Huperzia serrata extract
Huperzine A is a natural plant alkaloid that extracted from the Chinese medicine Huperzia serrata under the genus Huperzia. It is a potent, revisable and highly selective second generation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, with the appearance of yellow to white crystalline powder, and is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in methanol and ethanol, slightly soluble in water, with high lipid solubility. It is a small molecule that can well penetrate the blood brain barrier, and after entering the central nervous, it distributes more in the brain's frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and areas that are closely related to learning and memory. It has a strong inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) at a low dosage, significantly increasing the content of acetylcholine (Ach) in neural synaptic cleft in the distribution area, thus enhancing neuronal excitatory transmission, strengthening the excitement of learning and memory in the brain, thereby with the function of improving cognitive function, enhancing memory retention and promoting memory reproduction. It is currently the most successful development of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia) drugs.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Cheng Jingmin.
HPLC determination of the content of Huperzine A
[The test] Capsules that processed by extracts of Huperzia serrata (Thunb) Trev (Huperziaceae).
1. Chromatographic conditions: Column: Alltima C18 column (4.6mm × 150mm), mobile phase: methanol-0.1mol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH6.0) (36:64); flow rate: 0.6ml/min; detection wavelength: 308nm; column temperature: room temperature.
2. The preparation of the reference solution: take defined amount of the reference substance of Huperzine A, add it to the mobile phase to make the reference solution with 0.005mg reference substance per ml.
3. Preparation of sample solution: Take the contents of Huperzine A capsules (the equivalent of 0.125mg huperzine A) to a 25ml flask, and use the mobile phase to melt and dilute to volume, and shake and take it as the sample solution.
4.Determination: take the reference and sample solution 20μl respectively and do the injection analysis.
ChEBI: A sesquiterpene alkaloid isolated from a club moss Huperzia serrata that has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective activity.
Skin hives, abdominal pain, salivation, muscle twitching, diarrhea, and insomnia, but not common.
Overdose can cause dizziness, nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort, chest tightness, fatigue, bradycardia and other reactions. The symptoms usually disappear on their own, and relief or disappear after stopping or reduction of the product when reacting significantly.
AChE is an enzyme in the brain to decompose the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, responsible for function of a large number of neurons synaptic and excitability of the central nervous system. An acetylcholinesterase molecule can reduce functions of about 25000 acetylcholine molecule. Such inhibitor is often used as nerve gas agent, because too much acetylcholine in the body can cause muscle paralysis and suffocation.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease often lack acetylcholine, because acetylcholine plays an important role in nerve stimulation, memory and learning, as well as excitement. The decrease of Acetylcholinesterase levels can release acetylcholine, making more neurons active.
Reversible alkaloid inhibitor of AChE which crosses the blood-brain barrier. A potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease. It reduces cell death induced by glutamate in primary cultures derived from forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum of embryonic rat brain.
Huperzine A has selective inhibition for true cholinesterase, and the inhibition strength is thousands of times stronger than pseudocholinesterase. The suppression mode is mixed inhibition of competitive and noncompetitive, with significant differences with pure competitive inhibitors. This product crosses the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous easily, having both central and peripheral therapeutic effects; it has a long effective time; it is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; it has large safety index; it has good stability.
The comparison result of inhibition intensity of different drugs to acetylcholinesterase (AChE): Huperzine A> physostigmine> neostigmine> Huperzine B> galantamine> galanin.
The inhibition strength to human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE): physostigmine> neostigmine> Huperzine A> Huperzine B.
The functions of this product in both strengthening muscle contraction amplitude that induced by indirect electrical nerve stimulation and enhancing memory in rats are stronger than physostigmine, but its toxicity is lower than physostigmine, and it has longer duration of effectiveness.
cognition-enhancing activity, potential Alzheimer’s therapeutic
Pale Brown Solid
Huperzine A is a potent reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, stronger than physostigmine, neostigmine and Tacrine. When used for myasthenia gravis, the effective rate reaches to 99%.
Clinical trials show that the product is suitable for benign memory disorders. It can improve patients’ ability in directed memory, associative learning, image memory, meaningless figure recognition and portrait retrieval，and it also can enhance normal people’s ability in learning and memory. This product also can improve memory disorders that caused by dementia and organic pathologic changes in brain.
Clinically, Huperzine A is applicable to the treatment of the following symptoms:
1. for the treatment and improvement of memory dysfunction in elder age, improving memory association function; for the memory deterioration caused by excessive use of the brain, improving work efficiency;
2. for memory function deterioration associated with neurasthenia;
3. for memory deterioration caused by cerebral vascular disorder;
4. for memory improvement of Alzheimer's disease, and it has significant effects on improving and restoring the patient's cognitive ability, memory function and abnormal emotion behaviors;
5. for the treatment of myasthenia gravis;
6. for improvement of disturbance of association, low cognitive function, memory deterioration that associated with schizophrenia;
7. for improvement of memory dysfunction associated with a variety of brain diseases and physical disorders.
Reversible alkaloid inhibitor of AChE which crosses the blood-brain barrier. A potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease. It reduces cell death induced by glutamate in primary cultures derived from forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and cere
This product can effectively prevent the debilitating brain in elder age, restore brain function, active brain neurotransmitter substances, and it is the new drug for the treatment of benign memory impairment currently.
Huperzine A can not only inhibite the activity of cholinesterase, but also improve cognitive function and ability of learning and memory through a variety of pharmacological mechanisms like effecting the system of free radicals, reducing expression levels of somatostatin, intracellular [Ca2+], glutamic acid content and increase calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin messenger RNA (CaM mRNA).