Vanadium pentoxide is an intermediate in recovering vanadium from minerals (See Vanadium). Sodium polyvanadate, obtained as a red cake in one of the steps in extracting vanadium from its ores is calcined at 700°C in air to form a melt of vanadium pentoxide. Pentoxide is prepared in purified form by dissolving red cake in sodium carbonate solution followed by addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia and ammonium chloride. Ammonium metavanadate is precipitated which on decomposition at 320 to 430°C forms vanadium pentoxide.
Brown-yellow orthorhombic crystals; density 3.35 g/cm3; melts at 670°C; decomposes at 1,800°C; slightly soluble in water, 0.8g/100 mL at 20°C; soluble in concentrated acids forming an orange-yellow solution; soluble in alkalies forming vanadates.
Vanadium pentoxide is the oxide form of vanadium. As an important vanadium compound, it is used as the major precursor to alloys of vanadium and is widely used as industrial catalyst. It can be used for the production of ferrovanadium and sulfuric acid. It can also catalyze the oxidation reaction of some anhydrides. It can also be used as a detector material in bolometer arrays for thermal imaging because of its thermal resistance. Vanadium pentoxide is also a kind of highly selective and stable ethanol sensor materials. Moreover, the microspheres of vanadium pentoxide formed during the synthesis of vanadium pentoxide nanorods in a mediated polyol process exhibit excellent electrochemical properties when used as the cathode material in a lithium-ion battery.
Other applications are in making yellow glass; as a depolarizer; as a developer in photography; inhibiting UV transmission in glass;and coloring ceram; as a mordant for dyeing and printing fabrics.
Probable oral lethal dose for humans is between 5 and 50 mg/kg or between 7 drops and 1 teaspoonful for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. Toxicity is about the same magnitude as pentavalent arsenic. A person with chronic respiratory disease is at greater risk when exposed to this substance.
As catalyst in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3, alcohol to acetaldehyde, etc.; for the manufacture of yellow glass; inhibiting ultraviolet light transmission in glass; depolarizer; as developer in photography; in form of ammonium vanadate as mordant in dyeing and printing fabrics and in manufacture of aniline black.
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Cao, A. M., et al. "Self-assembled vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) hollow microspheres from nanorods and their application in lithium-ion batteries." Angewandte Chemie 44.28(2005): 4391.
Moskalyk, R. R., and A. M. Alfantazi. "Processing of vanadium: a review." Minerals Engineering 16.9 (2003): 793-805.
Khorfan, S., A. Wahoud, and Y. Reda. "Recovery of vanadium pentoxide from spent catalyst used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid." Periodica Polytechnica. Chemical Engineering 45.2 (2001): 131.
Friedrichsen, Wilhelm, and Otto Goehre. "Supported catalysts containing vanadium pentoxide and titanium dioxide and their use for the production of carboxylic acids and carboxylic anhydrides." U.S. Patent No. 3,684,741. 15 Aug. 1972.
Karunagaran, B., et al. "Study of a pulsed laser deposited vanadium oxide based microbolometer array." Smart materials and structures 12.2 (2003): 188.
Container may explode in heat of fire. When heated to decomposition, Vanadium pentoxide emits acrid smoke and fumes of vanadium oxides. Material is not flammable but Vanadium pentoxide may increase the intensity of the fire when in contact with combustible materials. Avoid chlorine trifluoride; lithium; peroxyformic acid; and calcium, sulfur, water complexes. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
Vanadium pentoxide is a yellow to red colour solid and is odourless. Vanadium pentoxide
dust is the particulate form of a non-combustible, odourless, yellow-orange or dark grey
On decomposition by heating, vanadium pentoxide produces toxic fumes. Vanadium
is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust in a wide range of minerals and in fossil fuels.
Vanadium pentoxide, the major commercial product of vanadium, is mainly used in the
production of alloys with iron and aluminium. It is also used as an oxidation catalyst in
the chemical industry and in a variety of minor applications.
A yellow to rust-brown or orange crystals or powder. Slightly soluble in water and denser than water. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. May be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption.
Vanadium pentoxide is acidic in many reactions. Hence, soluble in bases. [Kirk-Othmer]. Can react with ClF3, Li, peroxyformic acid and (Ca+S+H2O). Also reacts with strong acids.