Oxymetholone is a synthetic, orally active anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and 17α-methylated derivative of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It is mainly used for the treatment of osteroporosis and anemia (low red blood cell count). It can also stimulate the muscle growth in malnourished or underdeveloped patients. It also has the potential to treat the HIV wasting syndrome. Oxymetholone can also lead to an even buildup in strength, which is its secondary characteristics, making it an excellent steroid to be coupled with other anabolic steroids to yield synergetic effect.
Anabolic steroid. Controlled substance
Flash point data for Oxymetholone are not available. Oxymetholone is probably combustible.
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
Oxymetholone is indicated for the treatment of anemias that are resultant of ineffective red cell production, such as myelofibrosis, acquired aplastic anemia, congenital aplastic anemia and hypoplastic anemia. The drug should not be prescribed as a replacement for other supplementary measures such as antibacterial therapy, pyridoxine deficiency or vitamin B12, folic acid, rectification of iron, transfusion and the correct use of corticosteroids.
Common side effects associated with Oxymetholone use in men and women include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, insomnia, feeling excited or restless, increased or reduced libido, breast tenderness/swelling, male pattern baldness and acne.
In men, Oxymetholone may result in bladder irritability, a reduction in original volume, epididymitis, chronic priapism, impotence, testicular oligospermia and atrophy, and suppression of testicular function.
Prolonged Oxymetholone use can result in blood-filled cysts or tumors in the spleen or the liver. One may need to consult a doctor if they experience painful urination, loss of appetite, jaundice, dark urine, fast weight gain in the midsection or the face, clay-colored stools, pain on the upper section of the stomach and nausea.
ChEBI: A 3-oxo-steroid that is 4,5alpha-dihydrotestosterone which is substituted by a hydroxymethylidene group at position 2 and by a methyl group at the 17alpha position. A synthetic androgen, it was mainly used for the treatmen
of anaemias until being replaced by treatments with fewer side effects.
Mechanism of Action
The influence of testosterone in humans takes on two main pathways: generation of the androgen receptor as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or directly, and by transformation into estradiol and generation of specific estrogen receptors. Unrestrained receptors are transferred into the cytoplasm of the selected tissue cells where it bonds with the androgen receptors, or it is reduced to DHT by 5α-reductase. The binding points are referred to as hormone response elements, and they determine the transcriptional activity of specific genes, which result in the androgenic effects.
The recommended dose of Oxymetholone is 1-5mg/kg administered daily based on the patient’s body weight. The most effective dose is 1-2mg/kg per day, but a patient may necessitate higher doses, which can be individualized.
Response to Oxymetholone is not immediate hence a minimum trial period of 3-6months should be indicated. In instances of remission, some patients thrive without the medication whereas an established dosage can support some with lower dose indications. For patients with congenital aplastic anemia, a regular maintenance dose should be prescribed.
Oxymetholone may be sensitive to light.
Oxymetholone should not be prescribed for patients with severe kidney or liver disease, female breast cancer with the affirmation of high calcium levels in the blood, male breast cancer, prostate cancer, and if one is pregnant.
Oxymetholone is also contraindicated in patients who have coronary artery disease, diabetes, blood clotting or bleeding disorder, enlarged prostate, high levels of triglycerides or cholesterol, cognitive heart failure or if they are taking blood thinners such as Jantoven, Coumadin and Warfarin. The drug is also contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to Oxymetholone, patients with nephrosis and those with adverse hepatic dysfunction.
Oxymetholone should not be prescribed for patients who are allergic to the drug. This drug should not be prescribed for patients who are under 18 years unless it is under strict supervision by a doctor, where the doctor will also take x-rays of the patient every 6 months to ascertain that Oxymetholone is not affecting the child’s bone development.
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of exposure to Oxymetholone may include cholestatic jaundice, hepatocellular neoplasms and peliosis hepatitis. Prepubertal exposure may cause phallic enlargement and increased frequency of erection. Postpubertal exposure may cause inhibition of testicular function, testicular atrophy, oligospermia, impotence, chronic priapism, epididymitis, bladder irritability, clitoral enlargement, menstrual irregularities, increased or decreased libido, excitation, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, leukemia, gynecomastia, deepening of the voice in women, hirsutism and male-pattern baldness in women, acne, edema, retention of serum electrolytes and decreased glucose tolerance. It may also cause higher risk of developing liver cell tumors. Other symptoms include abnormal liver function tests, salt and water retention and masculinization, particularly of the female fetus.
Odorless white to creamy white crystalline powder.
Off-White to Pale Yellow Solid