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451-40-1 Usage


2-Phenylacetophenone is a benzoin derivative, characterized by its white to off-white crystalline powder appearance. It is known for its chemical properties that make it a valuable compound in various applications.


Used in Polymer Industry:
2-Phenylacetophenone is used as a photoinitiator for vinyl polymerization. Its role in this application is to initiate the polymerization process when exposed to light, making it a crucial component in the production of various polymers.
Used in Photochemistry:
As a benzoin derivative, 2-Phenylacetophenone is also utilized in photochemistry due to its ability to initiate reactions when exposed to light. This property makes it a valuable tool in the synthesis of various compounds and materials that require light-induced processes.

Synthesis Reference(s)

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 104, p. 6831, 1982 DOI: 10.1021/ja00388a083The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 41, p. 2928, 1976 DOI: 10.1021/jo00879a030

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Flammable liquid. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also KETONES

Purification Methods

Crystallise deoxybenzoin from EtOH and/or distil it in a vacuum. [Beilstein 7 II 368, 7 III 2098, 7 IV 1393.]

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 451-40-1 includes 6 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 3 digits, 4,5 and 1 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 4 and 0 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 451-40:
51 % 10 = 1
So 451-40-1 is a valid CAS Registry Number.

451-40-1 Well-known Company Product Price

  • Brand
  • (Code)Product description
  • CAS number
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A10580)  Deoxybenzoin, 97%   

  • 451-40-1

  • 25g

  • 185.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A10580)  Deoxybenzoin, 97%   

  • 451-40-1

  • 100g

  • 517.0CNY

  • Detail



According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 19, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 19, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name 2-Phenylacetophenone

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Ethanone, 1,2-diphenyl-

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:451-40-1 SDS

451-40-1Relevant articles and documents

Hydration of Alkynes Catalyzed by L-Au-X under Solvent- and Acid-Free Conditions: New Insights into an Efficient, General, and Green Methodology

Gatto, Mattia,Del Zotto, Alessandro,Segato, Jacopo,Zuccaccia, Daniele

, p. 4685 - 4691 (2018)

L-Au-X [L = 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene {NHCiPr}, tris(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)phosphine {PArF}, bis(imino)acenaphtene-1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene {BIAN}, 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropyl-phenyl)dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene {NHCCH2}, bis(tert-butylamino)methylidene {NAC}, 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)biphenyl {JohnPhos}, tricyclohexylphosphine {PCy3}, triphenylphosphine {PPh3}, tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite {POR3}; X- = Cl-, OTf-, OTs-] catalysts were tested in the hydration of alkynes in neat and acid-free conditions. The overall catalytic evidence confirms that not only the counterion as previously observed by us but also the ligand play a crucial role. As a matter of fact, only complexes bearing NHC ligands showed appreciable catalytic activity. A complete rationalization of the ligand and counterion effects enabled us to develop a highly efficient methodology for the hydration of inactive diphenylacetylene in solvent-, silver-, and acid-free conditions. Thus, it was possible to reduce the catalyst loading to 0.01 mol % (with respect to diphenylacetylene) leading, to the best of our knowledge, to the highest TON (3400) and TOF (435 h-1) values found at 120 °C. The favorable catalytic conditions allowed us to reach for the first time very low E-factor (0.03) and high EMY (77) values for this substrate.

Reactivity and Crystal Structure of 10,11-Dihydro-10,11-epoxy-5H-dibenzocycloheptene. A Comparison with cis-Stilbene Oxide

Bellucci, Giuseppe,Chiappe, Cinzia,Marioni, F.,Spagna, Riccardo

, p. 2147 - 2151 (1990)

The kinetics and product distributions for the HClO4 catalysed hydrolysis of 10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxy-5H-dibenzocycloheptene 1 and of cis-stilbene oxide 6 in tetrahydrofuran-water (8:2), have been investigated by HPLC.The former epoxide gives 9,10-dihydroanthracene-9-carbaldehyde 4 and the trans- and cis-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzocycloheptene-10,11-diols 2 and 3, in the ratio 6:6:1. cis-Stilbene oxide reacts with a rate constant ca. ten times lower, giving mostly (+/-)-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diol.These differences can be explained by the crystal structure of 1, which shows considerable ring strain due to the enlargement of the bond angles at C(10) and C(11).This structure also suggests an explanation for the much lower rate of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase catalysed hydration of 1 relative to 6.

Synthetic Methods and Reactions. 85. Reduction of α-Halo Ketones with Sodium Iodide/Chlorotrimethylsilane

Olah, George A.,Arvanaghi, Massoud,Vankar, Yashwant D.

, p. 3531 - 3532 (1980)


Improving process efficiency of gold-catalyzed hydration of alkynes: Merging catalysis with membrane separation

A. C. A. Bayrakdar, Tahani,Nahra, Fady,Zugazua, Oihane,Eykens, Lies,Ormerod, Dominic,Nolan, Steven P.

, p. 2598 - 2604 (2020)

In this report, we investigate the integration of a membrane separation protocol in line with the gold-catalyzed hydration of alkynes. The catalytic reaction is optimised towards that end and subsequently merged with membrane technology via the development of an organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) procedure. The protocol is investigated over both ceramic and polymeric membranes. Several gold catalysts were screened in the hydration of diphenylacetylene 1, and high rejection was observed in all cases using Borsig-type polymeric membranes. Catalyst recycling was also achieved up to 4 times using [Au(OTf)(IPr)] (3). In addition, the retained catalyst in the last catalytic cycle was analyzed and readily converted into [Au(Cl)(IPr)] (synthetic precursor to 3), using a straightforward treatment. The sustainability of the process was improved by using a green solvent, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (Me-THF), and by reducing the amount of solvent used via the implementation of a second membrane.

Lanthanides in Organic Synthesis. 2. Reduction of α-Heterosubstituted Ketones

Molander, Gary A.,Hahn, Gregory

, p. 1135 - 1138 (1986)



Taraban, M. B.,Maryasova, V. I.,Leshina, T. V.,Rybin, L. I.,Gendin, D. V.,Vyazankin, N. S.

, p. 347 - 356 (1987)

The detailed mechanism of the photolysis of benzoyltriethylgerman Et3GeCOPh in various media has been studied using the chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization method (1 H CIDNP).It has been shown that in all cases the photolytic decomposition lea


Blade-Font et al.

, p. 2646 (1960)


Synthesis and characterization of gold(I) complexes of dibenzotropylidene-functionalized NHC ligands (Trop-NHCs)

Brill, Marcel,Collado, Alba,Cordes, David B.,Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.,Vogt, Matthias,Grützmacher, Hansj?rg,Nolan, Steven P.

, p. 263 - 274 (2015)

Gold(I) complexes of dibenzotropylidene-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (Trop-NHCs) have been prepared in order to investigate their structural features and to reveal possible interactions of the olefin unit with the metal center. The precursor imidazolium chloride salts (R-1) were generated in a single step using N-substituted imidazoles (R = H, Me, DiPP, Ad) and 1 or 2 equiv of Trop-Cl, generating unsymmetrical and symmetrical NHC-olefin hybrids. The structural parameters of the ligands were determined by synthesis and X-ray diffraction analysis of their corresponding gold(I) chloride complexes, revealing highly flexible steric demands of the Trop unit. Conversion of these complexes with halide-abstracting reagents such as AgNTf2 and NaBArF24 cleanly gave neutral, NTf2-coordinated complexes of the type [(NHC)Au(NTf2)] (R-3) and the cationic bis-NHC-coordinated complexes [(NHC)2Au]BArF24 (R-4), respectively. The Gagosz-type complexes R-3 were further tested in the hydration of diphenylacetylene, showing a clear trend in activity depending on the ligand's sensitivity to hydrolysis.

Carbenoids by Deoxygenation of Carbonyl Compounds with Chloromethylsilanes

Smith, Clifford L.,Arnett, James,Ezike, James

, p. 653 - 654 (1980)

Deoxygenation of benzophenone, benzaldehyde, and cyclohexanone with chloromethylsilanes and zinc-copper couple in ether is reported to yield 2,2,2-triphenylacetophenone, a mixture of deoxybenzoin and diphenylacetaldehyde, and a bicyclic ketone with the proposed 2-oxocycloheptanespirocyclohexane structure, respectively; a carbene mechanism is proposed.

Reusable functionalized polysiloxane-supported palladium catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling


, p. 270 - 277 (2011)

Palladium catalyst, obtained in the reaction of PdCl2(cod) with poly[(3-N-midazolopropyl)methylsiloxane-co-bisdimethylsiloxane], was used in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid. Catalytic reactions, performed at 40–80 °C in water or 2-propanol/water mixture, led to high yields of 2-methylbiphenyl with TOF up to 25,000 h?1. In recycling experiments, excellent results were obtained in eight subsequent runs. With application of microwave heating, more than 95% of product was formed under mild conditions and short time. XRD, TEM, and XPS methods evidenced the presence of Pd(0) nanoparticles bonded to the polysiloxane support. Their important role in the catalytic process was indicated by the results of mercury poisoning test.

Electrochemical oxidation-induced benzyl C–H carbonylation for the synthesis of aromatic α-diketones

Tan, Yu-Fang,Chen, Yuan,Li, Rui-Xue,Guan, Zhi,He, Yan-Hong

supporting information, (2021/12/21)

Electrochemical oxidation-induced direct carbonylation of benzyl C–H bond for the synthesis of aromatic α-diketones is described. In this process, tetrabutylammonium iodide (nBu4NI) not only acts as an electrolyte, but its iodine anion is oxidized to an iodine radical at the anode, acting as a hydrogen atom transfer agent. The iodine radical extracts the benzyl hydrogen atom and causes the carbonylation of the benzyl position, where O2 in the air is used as an oxygen source.

H2O2-mediated room temperature synthesis of 2-arylacetophenones from arylhydrazines and vinyl azides in water

Luo, Mengqiang,Zhang, Yaohong,Fang, Ping,Li, Yan,Qi, Chenze,Li, Yong,Shen, Runpu,Cheng, Kai,Wang, Hai

supporting information, p. 630 - 635 (2022/02/01)

An environmentally benign, cost-efficient and practical methodology for the room temperature synthesis of 2-arylacetophenones in water has been discovered. The facile and efficient transformation involves the oxidative radical addition of arylhydrazines with α-aryl vinyl azides in the presence of H2O2 (as a radical initiator) and PEG-800 (as a phase-transfer catalyst). From the viewpoint of green chemistry and organic synthesis, the present protocol is of great significance because of using cheap, non-toxic and readily available starting materials and reagents as well as amenability to gram-scale synthesis, which provides an attractive strategy to access 2-arylacetophenones.

Pd nanoparticles supported on pyrazolone-functionalized hollow mesoporous silica as an excellent heterogeneous nanocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

Ghorbani, Somayeh,Parnian, Rouhallah,Soleimani, Ebrahim

, (2021/08/24)

Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs), by exploiting both their organo-functionalized surface and porous shell were chosen as the ideal support for the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs). The HMSNs were created by acidic removal of Fe3O4 nanoparticles from silica-coated Fe3O4 core-shell. The catalyst was prepared following surface modification of HMSNs by (3-chloropropyl)-triethoxysilane (CPTES), functionalization by pyrazolone-based ligand, and stabilization of Pd-NPs on HMSNs. The resulting catalyst was fully characterized by different analytical techniques. This new heterogeneous catalyst showed high catalytic activity and excellent selectivity in the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohols in ethanol at ambient temperature. Easy separation by centrifuge and reusability for five successive cycles without significant loss of catalytic activity were some advantages of this catalyst.

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