Hyaluronic acid’s main functions include:
- Has excellent affinity to water and can regroup water within tissue for better retention and lubrication.
- Folds to form a three-dimensional network and produces physiological effects, including producing fluid resistance, maintaining water balance and bodily stability, influencing macromolecule solubility, structure, chemical balance and system osmotic pressure, preventing the spread of pathogens, and promote the condensation of collagen fiber secretory substances.
- Forms polymers with inseparable proteins to maintain tissue shape and size and to ensure reversible tissue compression resistance.
- Affects macrophages, adherent cells, lymph cells, and natural killer cells.
- Serves as an important part of interstitial fluid and is mainly metabolized in the liver. Liver fiber activity increases HA synthesis; combined with reduced function during cirrhosis, blood HA levels may increase abnormally.
ChEBI: A mucopolysaccharide composed of N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid subunits. It is found in the connective tissues of vertebrates.
Synovitis agent (veterinary).
Equron [Veterinary] (Fort
Dodge Animal Health); Legend (Bayer Animal Health);
Synacid [Veterinary] (Schering-Plough Animal Health).
Hyaluronic acid is a completely transparent, non-adhesive, water-soluble and grease-free acid mucopolysaccharide. Its molecular weight is between a few hundred thousand to millions, and it makes up the dermis layer of the skin. Its unique molecular structure and physicochemical properties has many important physiological functions inside the body, such as lubricating joints, adjusting vascular permeability, adjusting proteins, diffusing and transporting water electrolytes, and promoting wound healing. Hyaluronic acid has a unique water retention effect and has the best known natural moisturizing properties, making it the ideal natural moisturizer.
Hyaluronic acid is an essential drug in ophthalmic “sticky surgeries”. It is used in cataract surgery, in which its sodium salt remains in the anterior chamber to maintain depth in the anterior chamber and ensure a clear surgical view. It reduces the occurences of postoperative inflammation and complications, thus improving the vision-correcting effects of the surgery. It is also used in complicated retinol detachment surgery. Hyaluronic acid has a low molecular weight and is considered the ideal natural moisturizing agent, so it is used as an additive in high-end makeup and as a moisturizer in creams, gels, lotions, masks, and serums.
It is also used medically as a moisturizer to improve moisture retention and lubrication, and it also expands capillaries and improves skin health. For example, hyaluronic acid with a low molecular weight can be used as a lubricant in surgeries (such as knee surgery), while those with high molecular weight can be used as surgical lubricant and as a substitute for vitreous in ophthalmic surgery.