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Potassium chlorate

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Name Potassium chlorate EINECS 223-289-7
CAS No. 3811-04-9 Density 2.32 g/cm3
Solubility water: 73 g/L (20 °C) Melting Point 356 °C(lit.)
Formula ClKO3 Boiling Point
Molecular Weight 122.55 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1485 5.1/PG 2 Appearance colourless crystals or colourless to white crystalline powder
Safety 13-16-27-61 Risk Codes 9-20/22-51/53
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 3811-04-9 (Potassium chlorate) Hazard Symbols OxidizingO,HarmfulXn,DangerousN
Synonyms

Chloricacid, potassium salt (8CI,9CI);Anforstan;Berthollet salt;Berthollet's salt;Chloric acid (HClO3) potassium salt;Chloric acid potassium salt (KClO3);Fekabit;

 

Chemistry

IUPAC Name: potassium chlorate
Synonyms of Potassium chlorate (CAS NO.3811-04-9): Anforstan ; Berthollet salt ;Chlorate de potassium ;Chloric acid potassium salt (1:1) ;Potassium oxymuriate
CAS NO: 3811-04-9
Molecular Formula: ClKO3
Molecular Weight: 122.55
Molecular Structure:
EINECS: 223-289-7 
H bond acceptors: 3
H bond donors: 1
Freely Rotating Bonds: 0
Polar Surface Area: 54.37 Å2
Melting point: 356 °C(lit.)
Boiling point: 400 °C
Density: 2,32 g/cm3 
Storage temp.: 2-8 °C  
Water Solubility: 73 g/L (20 °C )  
Sensitive: Hygroscopic 
Appearance: colourless crystals or colourless to white crystalline powder
Stability: Stability Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Mixtures with combustible material may be shock-sensitive. Incompatible with organics, combustible materials, strong reducing agents 
Product Categories of Potassium chlorate (CAS NO.3811-04-9): Inorganic Chemicals;Inorganics;Inorganic Salts;Potassium;Synthetic Reagents;Metal and Ceramic Science;Potassium Salts;Salts;Essential Chemicals;Reagent Grade;Routine Reagents;ACS GradeSynthetic Reagents;Analytical Reagents for General Use;O-P, Puriss p.a. ACS;Puriss p.a. ACS
SMILES: [K+].[O-]Cl(=O)=O
InChI: InChI=1/ClHO3.K/c2-1(3)4;/h(H,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
InChIKey: VKJKEPKFPUWCAS-REWHXWOFAC
Std. InChI: InChI=1S/ClHO3.K/c2-1(3)4;/h(H,2,3,4);/q;+1/p-1
Std. InChIKey: VKJKEPKFPUWCAS-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Uses

 Potassium chlorate (CAS NO.3811-04-9) is used as an oxidizing agent, to prepare oxygen, as a disinfectant, in safety matches, and in explosives and fireworks. It is also used in cultivation, forcing the blossoming stage of a Longan tree, causing it to produce fruit in warmer climates.

Production

In industry, Potassium chlorate (CAS NO.3811-04-9) is produced by the electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution to form sodium chlorate, which is reacted with potassium chloride to precipitate potassium chlorate. The resultant sodium chloride is returned to the mother liquor for electrolysis. Besides, it can also be produced on a smaller scale by the thermal disproportionation of a hypochlorite to its respective chlorate and chloride by boiling, then adding KCl. This reaction should be done in a fume hood due to the production of chlorine and chlorine dioxide gas.

Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo oral 1200mg/kg (1200mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 242, 1955.
guinea pig LDLo intraperitoneal 1800mg/kg (1800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 35, Pg. 1, 1929.
guinea pig LDLo oral 7500mg/kg (7500mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 35, Pg. 1, 1929.
human LDLo unreported 429mg/kg (429mg/kg)   Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 21, Pg. 169, 1886.
rabbit LDLo oral 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg)   Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 21, Pg. 169, 1886.
rat LD50 oral 1870mg/kg (1870mg/kg)   American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, Pg. 470, 1969.
rat LDLo intraperitoneal 1500mg/kg (1500mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 35, Pg. 1, 1929.

Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Safety Profile

Safety Information for Potassium chlorate (CAS NO.3811-04-9):
Hazard Codes: OxidizingOHarmfulXnDangerousN
Risk Statements: 9-20/22-51/53
R9: Explosive when mixed with combustible material. 
R20/22: Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed. 
R51/53: Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Safety Statements: 13-16-27-61
S13: Keep away from food, drink and animal foodstuffs. 
S16: Keep away from sources of ignition. 
S27: Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. 
S61: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.
RIDADR: UN 1485 5.1/PG 2
WGK Germany: 2
RTECS: FO0350000
HazardClass: 5.1
PackingGroup: II
Moderately toxic to humans by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. A gastrointestinal tract and kidney irritant. Can cause hemolysis of red blood cells and methemoglobinemia. Toxic dose to a human is about 5 g.

 

A powerful oxidizer and very reactive material. It has been the cause of many industrial explosions. May explode on heating. Explosive reactions with ammonium chloride, aqua regia + ruthenium, sulfur dioxide solutions in ether or ethanol. Reacts with fluorine to form the explosive gas fluorine perchlorate.

Forms sensitive explosive mixtures with agricultural materials (e.g., peat, powdered sulfur, sawdust, thiuram), aluminum + antimony trisulfide powders, arsenic trisulfide, carbon, charcoal + potassium nitrate + sulfur, charcoal + sulfur, cyanides, cyanoguanidine, hydrocarbons, manganese dioxide + traces of organic matter, manganese dioxide + potassium hydroxide, metal + wood, metal phosphides (e.g., tricopper diphosphide, trimercury tetraphosphide), metal phosphinates (e.g., barium phosphinate), finely divided metals (e.g., aluminum, copper, magnesium, zinc, germanium, titanium, zirconium, steel, chromium), metal phosphides (e.g., tricopper diphosphide, trimercury tetraphosphide), metal sulfides (e.g., antimony trisulfide, silver sulfide), metal thiocyanates (e.g., ammonium thiocyanate, barium thiocyanate), nitric acid + organic materials, powdered nonmetals (e.g., arsenic, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, boron), reducing agents (e.g., calcium hydride, strontium hydride, sodium phosphinate, calcium phosphinate, barium phosphinate), sugars (e.g., glucose), sulfur, sulfur + metal derivatives (e.g., cobalt, cobalt oxide, copper nitride, copper sulfate, copper chlorate), sulfuric acid, sodium amide, tannic acid.

Violent reaction or ignition with NH3, NH4Cl, NH4+ salts, ammonium sulfate, Sb2S3, As, barium hypophosphite, BaS, calcium hypophosphite, CaS, charcoal, Cu3P2, fabrics, gallic acid, hydrogen iodide, lactose, (Mg + CuSO4 (anhydrous) + NH4NO3 + H2O), MnO2, dinickel trioxide, dibasic organic acids, organic matter, NaNH2, sugar + sulfuric acid, sucrose, SO2, H2SO4, thiocyanates, thorium dicarbide, sodium amide, fabrics, KOH, metal hypophosphites.

When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of Cl and K2O. Used in the manufacture of soap, glass, and pottery. See also CHLORATES.

Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  5.1; Label: Oxidizer

Specification

General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Strong oxidizer. Contact with other material may cause fire. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool.
Extinguishing Media: Use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam. 
Handling: Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Use spark-proof tools and explosion proof equipment. Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Storage: Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame. Do not store near combustible materials. Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container. Keep away from strong acids.

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