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Name

Kerosene

EINECS 232-366-4
CAS No. 8008-20-6 Density 0.8 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
Solubility insoluble

Stability

    Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Toxicology

    Harmful if swallowed. May act as an irritant. May act asa carcinogen for prolonged occupational exposure.

Melting Point < -48 C
Formula Boiling Point 170 - 325 C depending upon formulation
Molecular Weight 0 Flash Point 35 - 65 C depending upon composition
Transport Information Appearance yellow liquid
Safety Suspected carcinogen. Poison by intravenous and intratracheal routes. Moderately toxic to animals by ingestion. A severe skin irritant. Mutation data reported. Human systemic effects by ingestion and intravenous routes: somnolence, hallucinations and distorted perceptions, coughing, nausea or vomiting, and fever. Aspiration of vomitus can cause serious pneumonitis, particularly in young children. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical.

Analytical Methods:

   

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Naphthas, 1550.

Risk Codes
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 8008-20-6 (Kerosene) Hazard Symbols Moderate fire risk, explosive limits in air 0.7–5.0%. Toxic by inhalation.
Synonyms

Kerosine;Kerosine (petroleum); AF 100 (pesticide); Avtur; Avtur (pesticide); Bayol 35;Bitumen Cutter; Chiotekku; Chiotekku SH; Coal oil; Conoco 170E; Deotomisol S;Eneos Kerosene; Escaid 100; Escaid 110; Exxsol D 200/240; Finalan 75; Fuels,kerosine; Ink oil; KO 30 (solvent); Kedrul 212; Magisol 52; Neochiozol;Nysolvin 75A; Odorless Solvent 3440; P 878; Parasol; Pegasol 3040; RP 3; RP 3(solvent); SX 12; SX 7; Shell 140; Shellsol 2046; Solbrax Eco 255/285;W-Kerosene

 

Kerosene Chemical Properties

Product Name: Kerosene
Synonyms of Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6): Jp-5 navy fuel/marine diesel fuel ; Kerosine (petroleum) ; Kerosine, petroleum ; Distillate fuel oils, light ; Fuel No. 1 ; Fuel No. 1 [Oil, fuel] ; Jet fuels, JP-5 ; Kerosene (deodorized) ; Kerosene [UN1223] [Flammable liquid] ; Kerosene, straight run ; Navy fuels JP-5 ; Straight-run kerosene ; UN1223
CAS NO: 8008-20-6
Classification Code: Agricultural Chemical ; Human Data ; Mutation data ; Skin / Eye Irritant ; TSCA UVCB ; Tumor data ; Unspecified / Unclassified pesticide
Melting point: 24-25 °C
Boiling point: 175-325 °C(lit.)
Flash point: 179 °F
density: 0.8 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density: 4.5 (vs air)
vapor pressure: 0.23 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index: n20/D 1.436
storage temp.: 2-8°C
  Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6) is a flammable pale-yellow or colorless oily liquid with a characteristic odor.

Kerosene History

Around the year 850 the Abbasid Caliphate introduced Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6), manufactured from crude oil by distillation, named naft abyad , which was made using an apparatus called al-inbiq, the origin of the English word alembic. In his Kitab al-Asrar , the physician and chemist al-Razi  described two methods for the production of kerosene.
In 1846 Canadian geologist Abraham Gesner gave a public demonstration in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island of a new process he had discovered. He heated coal in a retort and distilled from it a clear, thin fluid which he showed made an excellent lamp fuel. He coined the name "Kerosene" for his fuel,and cost of extracting kerosene from coal was. Fortunately, Gesner recalled from his extensive knowledge of New Brunswick's geology a naturally-occurring asphaltum called Albertite. He was however blocked from using it by the New Brunswick coal conglomerate because they had coal extraction rights for the province and he lost a court case when their experts claimed that Albertite was in fact a form of coal. Gesner subsequently moved to Newton Creek, Long Island, USA, in 1854,they formed the North American Gas Light Company, to which he assigned his patents.Despite clear priority of discovery, Gesner did not obtain his first kerosene patent until 1854, two years after James Young's US patent. Gesner's method of purifying the distillation products appears to have been superior to Young's, resulting in a cleaner and better smelling fuel. Manufacture of kerosene under the Gesner patents began in New York in 1854 and later in Boston, being distilled from bituminous coal and oil shale.
In 1851 Samuel Martin Kier began selling kerosene to local miners, under the name "Carbon Oil". He distilled this by a process of his own invention from crude oil. He also invented a new lamp to burn his product.He has been dubbed the Grandfather of the American Oil Industry by historians. Since the 1840s, Kier's salt wells were becoming fouled with petroleum. At first, Kier simply dumped the useless oil into the nearby Pennsylvania Main Line Canal, but later he began experimenting with several distillates of the crude oil along with a chemist from eastern Pennsylvania.
Ignacy Lukasiewicz, a Polish pharmacist residing in Lvov had been experimenting with different kerosene distillation techniques, trying to improve on Gesner's process, using local seep oil. Many people knew of his work but paid little attention to it. On the night of July 31 1853, doctors at the local hospital needed to perform an emergency operation, virtually impossible by candlelight. They therefore sent a messenger for Lukasiewicz and his new lamps. The lamp burned so brightly and cleanly that the hospital officials ordered several examples plus a large supply of fuel. Lukasiewicz realized the potential of his work and quit the pharmacy to find a business partner and then travelled to Vienna to register his technique with the government. Lu

Kerosene Uses

The term Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6) is also too often incorrectly applied to various fuel oils, but a fuel oil is actually any liquid or liquid petroleum product that produces heat when burned in a suitable container or that produces power when burned in an engine. It is widely used to power jet-engined aircraft  and some rockets, but is also commonly used as a heating fuel and for fire toys such as poi. It is used for burning in lamps and domestic heaters or furnaces, as a fuel or fuel component for jet engines, and as a solvent for greases and insecticides.
 

Kerosene Production

 Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6) is now produced from petroleum either by distillation or by cracking the loss volatile portion of crude oil at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures.

Kerosene Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo intratracheal 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 221, Pg. 531, 1951.
dog LDLo intravenous 200mg/kg (200mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 221, Pg. 531, 1951.
dog LDLo oral 4gm/kg (4000mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 221, Pg. 531, 1951.
guinea pig LD50 oral 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

ENDOCRINE: HYPOGLYCEMIA
Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 21, Pg. 803, 1944.
man LDLo oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 22, Pg. 883, 1980.
man LDLo unreported 1176mg/kg (1176mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
man TDLo intravenous 403mg/kg (403mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"
Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 10, Pg. 283, 1977.
man TDLo oral 3570mg/kg (3570mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: COUGH

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
El Torax. Vol. 15, Pg. 263, 1966.
rabbit LD skin > 2gm/kg (2000mg/kg)   Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 1, Pg. 30, 1990.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 6600mg/kg (6600mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGE IN TRACHEA OR BRONCHI

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: EMPHYSEMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA
Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 21, Pg. 803, 1944.
rabbit LD50 intratracheal 200mg/kg (200mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 3, Pg. 689, 1961.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 180mg/kg (180mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 21, Pg. 803, 1944.
rabbit LD50 oral 2835mg/kg (2835mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

ENDOCRINE: HYPOGLYCEMIA
Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 21, Pg. 803, 1944.
rat LC inhalation > 5gm/m3/4H (5000mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 1, Pg. 30, 1990.
rat LD oral > 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 1, Pg. 30, 1990.
rat LD50 intratracheal 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 1, Pg. 462, 1959.
rat LDLo intraperitoneal 10700mg/kg (10700mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 1, Pg. 156, 1959.

Kerosene Consensus Reports

IARC Cancer Review: Group 2A IMEMDT    IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 45 (1989),p. 39.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.: ) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) ; Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT    IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man . 45 (1989),p. 39.(World Health Organization, Internation Agency for Research on Cancer,Lyon, France.: ) (Single copies can be ordered from WHO Publications Centre U.S.A., 49 Sheridan Avenue, Albany, NY 12210) . Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Kerosene Safety Profile

Hazard Codes of Kerosene (CAS NO.8008-20-6): HarmfulXn,DangerousN,FlammableF
Risk Statements: 65-67-62-51/53-48/20-38-11 
R65: Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed. 
R67: Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. 
R62: Risk of impaired fertility. 
R51/53: Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. 
R48: Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure. 
R20: Harmful by inhalation. 
R38: Irritating to skin. 
R11: Highly flammable.
Safety Statements: 23-24-62-61-36/37 
S23: Do not breathe vapour. 
S24: Avoid contact with skin. 
S62: If swallowed, do not induce vomitting; seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. 
S61: Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets. 
S36/37: Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
RIDADR: 1223
WGK Germany: 3
RTECS: OA5500000
HazardClass: 3
PackingGroup: III
Suspected carcinogen. Poison by intravenous and intratracheal routes. Moderately toxic to animals by ingestion. A severe skin irritant. Mutation data reported. Human systemic effects by ingestion and intravenous routes: somnolence, hallucinations and distorted perceptions, coughing, nausea or vomiting, and fever. Aspiration of vomitus can cause serious pneumonitis, particularly in young children. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical.

Kerosene Standards and Recommendations

ACGIH TLV: 200 mg/m3 (skin); Confirmed Animal Carcinogen
NIOSH REL: (Kerosene) TWA 100 mg/m3
DOT Classification:  3; Label: Flammable Liquid

Kerosene Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Naphthas, 1550.

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