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Indium General

Name:Indium Symbol:In
Type:Other Metal Atomic weight:114.82
Density @ 293 K:7.31 g/cm3 Atomic volume:15.7 cm3/mol

Indium was discovered by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous T. Richter in 1863 in zinc ores. The element was named after the brilliant blue line in its atomic spectrum. Hieronymous T. Richter isolated the metal in 1867.

Indium States

State (s, l, g):solid
Melting point:429.8 K (156.6 °C) Boiling point:2343 K (2070 °C)

Indium Energies

Specific heat capacity:0.23 J g-1 K-1 Heat of atomization:244 kJ mol-1
Heat of fusion:3.263 kJ mol-1 Heat of vaporization : 231.50 kJ mol-1
1st ionization energy: 558.3 kJ mol-1 2nd ionization energy:1820.6 kJ mol-1
3rd ionization energy:2704.5 kJ mol-1 Electron affinity:39 kJ mol-1

Indium Oxidation & Electrons

Shells:2,8,18,18,3 Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Minimum oxidation number: 0 Maximum oxidation number:3
Min. common oxidation no.: 0 Max. common oxidation no.:3
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale):1.78 Polarizability volume:9.7 Å3

Indium Appearance & Characteristics

Structure:tetragonal, distorted fcc structure Color:silvery-white
Hardness:1.2 mohs
Harmful effects:

Indium is considered to be of low toxicity.


Indium is a very soft, silvery-white lustrous metal. Indium liquid clings to or wets glass and similar surfaces. Like gallium, indium remains in a liquid state over a wide range of temperatures. When heated above its melting point, it burns with a violet flame to the sesquioxide (In2O3).


Indium is used in the production of low-melting alloys, typically with gallium. The melting point depends on the ratio of indium to gallium. An alloy with 24% indium and 76% gallium, for example, melts at 16 oC. (1) This type of alloy can be used as a non-toxic alternative to mercury in some applications. Compounds of indium are used in the semiconductor industry for germanium transistors, thermistors, rectifiers and photocells. Indium can be coated on metals and evaporated onto glass, to form mirrors equal to that made with silver but more corrosion resistant. Indium-tin oxide thin films are used for liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

Indium Reactions

Reaction with air:mild, w/ht ⇒ In2O3 Reaction with 6 M HCl:mild, ⇒ H2, InCl3
Reaction with 15 M HNO3:mild ⇒ In(NO3 )3 Reaction with 6 M NaOH:none

Indium Compounds

Oxide(s):InO, In2O3 Chloride(s):InCl, InCl2, InCl3
Hydride(s): InH

Indium Radius

Atomic radius:155 pm Ionic radius (1+ ion):pm
Ionic radius (2+ ion):pm Ionic radius (3+ ion):94 pm
Ionic radius (2- ion):pm Ionic radius (1- ion):pm

Indium Conductivity

Thermal conductivity:81.8 W m-1K-1 Electrical conductivity:3.4 x 106 S m-1

Indium Abundance & Isotopes

Abundance earth's crust:250 parts per billion by weight, 47 parts per billion by moles
Abundance solar system: 4 parts per billion by weight, 40 parts per trillion by moles
Cost, pure:$302 per 100g
Cost, bulk:$85 per 100g

Indium has no minerals or ores with a high concentration of the element. Commercially, indium is extracted as a by-product of zinc refining. It is also extracted from iron, lead, and copper ores.


Indium has 35 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers from 100 to 134. Of these, one is stable: 113In. Naturally, the most common isotope is 113In, with a half life of 4.41 x 1014 years and an abundance of 95.7%.

Indium Other



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