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Zinc General

Name:Zinc Symbol:Zn
Type:Transition Metal Atomic weight:65.38
Density @ 293 K:7.14 g/cm3 Atomic volume:9.2 cm3/mol

Zinc ores have been used for making brass (a mixture of copper and zinc) and other alloys since ancient times. A zinc alloy comprising 87.5% zinc was discovered in an ancient site in Transylvania. Zinc smelting began in the 12th century in India by reducing calamine (zinc carbonate, ZnCO3) with wool and other organic materials.

Zinc States

State (s, l, g):solid
Melting point:692.68 K (419.53 °C) Boiling point:1183 K (910 °C)

Zinc Energies

Specific heat capacity:0.39 J g-1 K-1 Heat of atomization:131 kJ mol-1
Heat of fusion: 7.322 kJ mol-1 Heat of vaporization :115.30 kJ mol-1
1st ionization energy:906.4 kJ mol-1 2nd ionization energy:1733.2 kJ mol-1
3rd ionization energy:3832.6 kJ mol-1 Electron affinity:kJ mol-1

Zinc Oxidation & Electrons

Shells:2,8,18,2 Electron configuration:[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Minimum oxidation number:0 Maximum oxidation number:2
Min. common oxidation no.:0 Max. common oxidation no.:2
Electronegativity (Pauling Scale):1.65 Polarizability volume:6.4 Å3

Zinc Appearance & Characteristics

Structure: hcp: hexagonal close packed Color:bluish silver
Hardness:2.5 mohs
Harmful effects:

Zinc is not considered to be particularly toxic. Zinc is essential for good health, but excess zinc is toxic and can cause nausea.


Zinc is a bluish-silver, lustrous metal that tarnishes in moist air, producing a layer of carbonate. It is somewhat brittle at room temperature but malleable above 100 °C.

Zinc reacts with both acids and alkalis.

It is a fair conductor of electricity, and burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame producing white clouds of the oxide.


Zinc is used to galvanize iron to inhibit corrosion.

Zinc forms many alloys with other metals such as brass, German silver, nickel silver, typewriter metal and solders. Zinc alloys are used in die-castings for the car industry.

The metal acts as both the container and as an electrode in zinc-carbon batteries. The drawback of this dual use is that the electrode is consumed when the battery is in use, getting thinner until eventually the battery starts leaking.

Zinc is an essential trace element for animals and plants.

Zinc Reactions

Reaction with air:vigorous, ⇒ ZnO Reaction with 6 M HCl:mild, ⇒ H2, ZnCl2
Reaction with 15 M HNO3:vigorous, ⇒ Zn(NO3)2, NOx Reaction with 6 M NaOH:mild, ⇒ [Zn(OH4)]2-, H2

Zinc Compounds

Oxide(s):ZnO, ZnO2 (zinc peroxide) Chloride(s):ZnCl2
Hydride(s): ZnH2

Zinc Radius

Atomic radius:135 pm Ionic radius (1+ ion):pm
Ionic radius (2+ ion):88 pm Ionic radius (3+ ion):pm
Ionic radius (2- ion):pm Ionic radius (1- ion):pm

Zinc Conductivity

Thermal conductivity:116 W m-1 K-1 Electrical conductivity: 0.169 x 106 S cm-1

Zinc Abundance & Isotopes

Abundance earth's crust: 70 parts per million by weight, 22 parts per million by moles
Abundance solar system:2 part per million by weight, 30 parts per billion by moles
Cost, pure:$5.30 per 100g
Cost, bulk:$0.18 per 100g

Zinc is found in nature combined with other elements as ores. The main ores of zinc are sphalerite (sulfide), smithsonite (carbonate), hemimorphite (silicate), and franklinite (zinc, manganese, iron oxide). Commercially, zinc is obtained from zinc sulfide minerals. The minerals are concentrated and then usually roasted to oxidize the zinc sulfide to zinc oxide. Zinc is then extracted by either large-scale


Zinc has 25 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 57 to 83. Of these, four are stable, 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn and 68Zn. Over 48.6% of of naturally occurring zinc is in the form of 64Zn.

Zinc Other



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