White to light yellow crystalline powder. Melting point 198 ℃. 1g the materials can be dissolved in 800ml water, slightly soluble in ethanol. This optical rotation [α] 20/D is-39.3 ° (C = 5.7, H2O). It quickly drains wet in the air. High temperature, acidic and alkaline solution is relatively stable.
Stevioside ,as the sweet components of stevia, is distributed in Stevia leaf stem roots and other parts , but has the highest content in the leaves, and its content changes with the growth process ,and is highest in the squaring stage , non-toxic and safe , low-calorie, stevia is favored for these characteristics, is known as the world's third source of sugar, biological activity and product development studies on stevia arouse the interest of many scholars at home and abroad.
Stevia is a mixture of eight kinds of ligands which is constituted by the same diterpene glycoside . Free of sugar and calories; white to yellowish color and suitable taste, no smell, is the new source of sugar of promising development . Stevioside is a sweetener which has been found in the world and approved by the Chinese Ministry of Health to use, low calorific value and very close to the natural sucrose taste. It Is the third natural sweetener in addition to sugar cane, sugar beet ,having development value and health respected,and has been hailed as the international community, "the world's third source of sugar." Stevia as a food sweetener, is preservative widely used in food industry,to produce high-intensity, low-calorie, low-salt, anti-caries food.
Above information is edited by Chemicalbook Lu Yue .
Stevia, Asteraceae,Stevia genus , Stevia species, perennial herb. Its origin is Amambay Mountains at the junction of South America Paraguay and Brazil, it is a valuable sugar crop.It has been the introduced and cultivated in China. Whole contain sugar, highest sweetness in blade. Containing stevioside 14%,glycoside in the branches is equivalent to half of it in the blade. Leaves are dried and crushed to be used as sugar, or by alcohol treatment, ether precipitation,from 20 to 26% egg yellow crude extract can be obtained , the sweetness degree is 100 to 150 times of white sugar, refined products are white , the sweetness degree is 250 to 300 times of white sugar , and the heat is only 1/300 of white sugar. Stevioside has six monomeric species, and has been extracted as white powder diterpene glycosides chrysanthemum glycosides (stevioside), 300 times as sweet as sucrose; diterpene glycosides (steviolbioside); rebaudioside A, up to 450 times the sweetness of sucrose;rebaudiosideB; glycyrrhizin a (dulcoside a) and glycyrrhizin B (dulcosideB), etc., can be used as the sweetener supplement.
Stevia likes humidity, and its soil requirements are not strict. In the moist soil enough fertilizer, at a temperature of above 15 ℃ ,it grows well, less oxygen root system, resistance to humidity, not drought, growth is suppressed when it is short of water in early stage . Early growth stage needs less absorption of nutrients,while exuberant stage absorbs the most nutrients, of NPK, absorbing the most potassium, less phosphorus , moderate nitrogen, compost and lime can increase production. The squaring stage is the appropriate harvest period, when the glucoside and single glucosyl stevioside are the most abundant.
Stevia is not only originally wild, but also cross-pollinated plant, after years of introduction and domestication, their offspring widely are separated, the variation range is very large, its mixed strains include large leaves, small leaves, thick leaves, thin leaves, late maturity, early maturity, disease resistance, no disease resistance, drought resistance, no drought resistance and other types , applications on the production is mainly the big-leaf flower later type.
Because stevia has a high sweetness, low calorie,and it is not metabolized in the human body, non-toxic, safe and reliable, long aftertaste, etc., it is actively used in place of sucrose around the world . China's "food additives health standards" (GB2760-86)provides its maximum is used according to "normal production needs." It has been widely used in the food industry.
Stevioside endures high temperature and has good stability, not fermentable sugar,not only harmless, but also helping regulate blood sugar , assisting in treating cardiovascular disease after eating it . Stevia has good stability,? not easy to degeneration and deterioration when added to food, and pH is not required for the added food , and it can be saved for a long time. Stevia taken into the human body does not participate in the body's metabolism, but also does not cause accumulation. Stevia is now being applied to many manufacturers of food, beverage, pharmaceutical and other industries , it is a healthy, non-polluting, natural source of sugar.
Stevioside security is evaluated through Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), France AN-SES (State Food and Environmental Hygiene Department of Labor), and Standards Australia New Zealand Food Authority (FSANZ), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European food safety Authority (EFSA) ,the use of stevia extract for the general population, including diabetics, children and pregnant women, as well as side effects or unexplained allergic people, are safe. According to the current research, it has not been found stevioside has an adverse impact on human health.
Stevia (stevioside), also known as stevioside, steviosin, stevia extracts, as a potent sweet component of sweet chrysanthemum (stevia rebaudinan bertoni) which is contained? after extraction from the leaves through refined. Stevioside as colorless crystals, 200 to 300 times? sweetness of sucrose, with a slight scent of menthol and a small amount of astringency, heat stability, not easily broken.
The large number of tests have proved that stevioside has no toxic side effects, non-carcinogenic, safe to use, with a cool and sweet features.
GB2760-1996 of China regulation provides that: stevioside can be used in candy, cakes, drinks, solid drinks, fried snack foods, preserves, preserved fruits, sauces, soft ice cream and pharmaceutical materials, etc,use appropriately according to production needs
The product has a refreshing sweet taste, sweetness is about 200-300 times that of sucrose. Slightly bitter taste at high concentrations, sweet taste in the mouth is not easy to disappear. The product is one of the natural sweeteners closest to sucrose. As low alorie food sweetener, it can low pressure. As a sucrose substitute agent, the maximum amount should not exceed 1/3, in case of after taste. According to GB2760-86 regulations,it can be used for liquid and solid drinks, candy and pastries according to normal production needs. The disadvantage of this product is its high molecular weight and? poor permeability. Mice and rats oral toxicity is LD50> 8.2g/kg.
Application in Food Industry
Instead of sucrose%
On the palate balanced catchy, clear and bright, low-calorie, does not cause tooth decay
Enhance the flavor, no floc, no precipitation, color clear, extend shelf life,low-calorie
Good taste ,,low-calorie
Clear cool taste,Convenient measurement,does not cause tooth decay
low-calorie,Enhance the flavor,clear and bright, high sweetness
?does not cause tooth decay,Clear cool taste,long sweet time
Soft,good taste ,extend shelf life
preserves, preserved fruits
extend shelf life,taste good,decrase cost
Pure,good taste,extend shelf life
No browning, does not cause coloration fermentation phenomenon, shorten the curing time, increase the sweetness,does not occur shrinkage, improve the flavor
?does not cause coloration , increase the sweetness, improve the flavor
Improve alcohol taste, reduce spicy flavor
Increase transparency, reduce viscosity, refreshing taste
1. LD50 Mouse oral 34.77g/kg (bw).
2. NOEL oral rat 550mg/kg (bw) (Japan).
China, Japan stevioside toxicity tests (including acute, subacute and chronic toxicity test) results show thatit has no teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, and is? excreted unchanged? in the feces and urine after ingestion.
Stevioside? endures heat and light,? is very stable in a pH range of 3 to 10,and? easy to store.
Range and usage
(1) China's "food additives health standards" (GB 2760-1996) provides that:? appropriate stevia is used in candy, cakes, drinks according to production needs .
(2) the actual use of reference:
①when stevioside is mixed with fructose and sucrose or isomerized sugar,? its sweetness is improved, so is taste. When using steviocide instead of about 30% sucrose ,the results are better. General amount of orange juice 0.75g/L; fruity gel 0.1g/L; ice cream 0.5g/L. Use 20g stevioside instead of 3.2kg sucrose making egg bread, its shape, color, softness are good and taste good; use? 14.88kg stevioside? instead of? 0.75kg sodium saccharin making plum, it has delicious flavor, aftertaste cool.
②Calorific value of stevioside is only 1/300 of cane sugar, and is not involved in metabolism in the body, and thus is suitable for making health food for the diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease patients. For candy, it has? anti-caries effects.
③Rebaudioside A (the second main component of ordinary stevioside, 400 times the sweetness of sucrose) of high purity emerges in recent years ,its products and α-G-stevioside by enzymatic conversionf, have better taste and better or food, beverage.
This product can be used as a sweetener for glycyrrhizin. And it is often used with sodium citrate? to improve the taste quality.
Asteraceae small shrub sweet daisy (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves which are from Paraguay of northeast America ,dry them , extract them using ethanol , the extract is added ether to precipitate the sweet substance , and then recrystallize them from methanol. In terms of dry leaves, yield is about 6%. Our Jiangsu, Fujian, Xinjiang and other places have large-scale cultivation of stevia.
Stevioside is a naturally occurring sweetener (～200 times sweeter than sucrose) extracted from a South American plant, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The dried leaves, the water extract of leaves, and the refined chemical ingredients, eg, and Rebaudioside A (～300 times sweeter than sucrose), can all be used as sweetening agents. These are collectively referred to as stevia. Discovered in Paraguay and Brazil, the plant was identified in the early 1970s as a plant of high economical value and transported to Japan for cultivation, where the commercialization of stevia leaves extract as a natural sweetener became a success. Today Stevia plant is cultivated primarily in China.
Because no food additive petition has been presented to the FDA, stevioside and related materials cannot be used in the United States as food ingredients. An import alert against stevia was issued by the FDA in 1991. In 1995, however, the FDA revised this import alert to allow the importation and use of stevia as a dietary supplement, but not as a sweetener or an ingredient for foods. In 2004, JECFA (Joint Expert Committee of Food Additives) issued a preliminary ADI (Allowed Daily Intake) of 2-mg/kg body weight (based on steviol) for stevia extract. This action may impact favorably on worldwide regulatory approval. As consumer’s demand on naturally sweetened products increases, interest in Stevia, and naturally occurring potent sweeteners in general, is expected to grow. A comprehensive review of stevia is available [Kinghorn, 2002].
Stevioside is a glycoside from the stevia plant. Stevioside is a natural sweetening agent with sweetness about 250 times that of sugar with negligible effect on blood glucose. Stevioside, much like other steviol glycoside is known for its application in treatment of many diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure. It is also used as a food additive.
Stevioside is a glycoside from the stevia plant. Stevioside is a natural sweetening agent with sweetness about 250 times that of sugar with negligible effect on blood glucose. Stevioside, much like ot
her steviol glycoside is known for its application in treatment of many diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure. It is also used as a food additive and in dietary supplements.
Stevioside is a natural, calorie-free sweetener obtained from the leaves
of the plant stevia rebaudiana bertoni. it is a steviol glycoside in which
steviol’s carboxyl and hydroxyl hydrogen atom is replaced with glu-
cose; it has two linked glucose molecules at the hydroxyl site. it is the
major steviol glycoside found in the stevia plant and is 250–300
times sweeter than sugar. it is heat and ph stable. it has been associ-
ated with a bitter and licorice taste. see steviol glycoside.
Stevioside reportedly has genotoxic effects in cultured mammalian cells.