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78-92-2 Usage

Physical and Chemical Properties

2-butanol is also known as methyl ethyl alcohol, chemical formula is CH3CH2CHOHCH3. Molecular weight is 74.12. It is colorless liquid with a strong aroma of mint, flammable, volatile, with optical activity. The molecule has a chiral carbon atom, can be present in three forms of right-handed body, left-handed body and racemic body, dl-body: the relative density is 0.8063. Melting point is-114.7 ℃. Boiling point is 99.5 ℃, 45.5 ℃ (7.999 × 103Pa). The flash point is 34 ℃. The refractive index is 1.3978. d-body: the relative density is 0.8080. Boiling point is 99.5 ℃. The flash point is 24 ℃. The refractive index is 1.3954. Specific rotation is + 13.9 °. l-body: the relative density is 0.8070. Boiling point is 99.5 ℃. The flash point is 28 ℃. The refractive index is 1.3955. Specific rotation is-13.51 ° (25 ℃). 2-butanol oxidation can generate methyl ethyl ketone and acetic acid. Slightly soluble in water (25 ℃ when 12.5ml/100ml), dissolved in acetone, benzene, miscible with ethanol and ether. This product interacts with water to form an azeotropic mixture, the product content is 68%, the total boiling point is 88.5 ℃. Rat oral is LD506480mg/kg. 2-butanol is the main raw material for producing methyl ethyl ketone, butyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, and also used as a solvent and extraction agent, the raw materials of plasticizers, processing agents, herbicides, but also for synthesis of spices, flavors, coloring agents, wetting agent, cleaning agents and solvents of many natural resin, linseed oil and castor oil.

Chemical Properties

Different sources of media describe the Chemical Properties of 78-92-2 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. It is slightly sticky colorless flammable liquid, with a strong odor. Melting point is-114.7 ℃, the boiling point is 99.5 ℃, relative density (d204) is 0.808~0.809, the refractive index (nD25) is 1.3949, a flash point is 23.9 ℃. It is soluble in water, miscible in ethanol and ether.
2. Colourless liquid


Different sources of media describe the Uses of 78-92-2 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. 1. Used as extraction solvent, spices. 2. 2-butanol is Used as a solvent, and chromatography reagents 3. 2-butanol is Used for the production of intermediates of methyl ethyl ketone, for the preparation of butyl acetate, sec-butyl, used as plasticizers, processing agents, herbicides, solvents and so on. 4. Used for the production of intermediates of methyl ethyl ketone, for the preparation of butyl acetate, sec-butyl.
2. 2-Butanol is used in the production of methylethyl ketone and sec-butyl acetate, as asolvent in lacquers and alkyd enamels, inhydraulic brake fluids, in cleaning compounds,and its xanthate derivatives in oreflotation.
3. Preparation of methyl ethyl ketone, sol- vent, organic synthesis, paint removers, industrial cleaners.
4. Polishes, cleaning materials, paint removers, fruit essences, perfumes, and dyestuffs; synthesis of methyl ethyl ketone; lacquer solvent

Butanol isomers

Butanol is an important industrial raw material, also known as hydroxy butane, a monohydric alcohol, the lowest level alcohol for the same family which can have two or more isomers, butanol has four kinds of isomers, namely n-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butanol and isobutanol. Relative molecular mass is 74.12. Butanol has the common property of alcohols, such as water-like, reacts with metal to produce alkoxide, reacts with halogen acid to produce halogenated hydrocarbons, dehydrates into alkenes, oxidation (or dehydrogenation) reaction to produce aldehydes and acids, and reacts with organic acids or oxygen-containing inorganic acid to generate ester and so on. In the four isomers, the toxicity of n-butanol is minimal, the toxicity of the other three is not large, but their irritation is great, with irritation to the skin and mucous membrane. Inhalation of large vapors can cause coma. The maximum allowable concentration at workplace is 100 × 10-6. Butanol can be directly used as a solvent, extraction agent, dehydrating agent, plasticizer, mineral processing agent, anti-aging agent, herbicide and so on. Physical and chemical properties and toxicity of butanol are different due to isomers. The solubility in water depends on their structure, chemical properties depend on hydroxy location in alcohol: n-butanol and iso-butanol are primary alcohols, can be oxidized into the corresponding aldehyde or acid, sec-butyl alcohol is oxidized into the corresponding ketone, t-butanol is unsusceptible to oxidation. Physicochemical properties comparison chart of 4 isomers of butanol Under dehydrating catalyst, butanol can produce butene, n-butanol and 2-butene can give 1-butene, 2-butene, 2-butanol can generate 2-butene, isobutanol and tert-butanol generate isobutylene. Under the catalyst of copper and silver, the dehydrogenation generates carbonyl compounds, n-butanol generates butyraldehyde, butanol generates methyl ethyl ketone, isobutanol generate isobutyraldehyde. Under the catalyst, air oxidation can generate acid. Catalyzed by a mineral acid, it reacts with organic acid to generate ester. Reaction with benzene, can generate butyl benzene. Butanol reacts with chlorine to generate butyraldehyde chloride. Under the action of the aluminum catalyst at 300~350 ℃, reacts with ammonia, n-butanol, iso-butanol and 2-butanol react with ammonia to generate butylamine, dibutylamine, tributylamine, t-butanol does not have this character. N-butanol and tert-butanol at 180 ℃ react with hydrogen sulfide to generate butyl mercaptan. The above information were collated and edited by Xiaonan of lookchem.

Laboratory method for preparing 2-butanol

1, As raw materials 2-butene reacts with sulfuric acid in concentrated sulfuric acid to produce sulfuric acid butyl ester, sulfuric acid ester is then hydrolyzed to produce 2-butanol, and then distillation purification. 2, 2-butanone is used as raw material, under the action of a Grignard reagent, to prepare 2-butanol. 3, cis-2-butene is used as raw material, under the action of boron hydrides, to prepare d-or l-body.

Production method

After adsorption by butane of the cracking petroleum or natural gas in sulfuric acid, then hydrolyze with steam.

Dangerous situations

Prolonged inhalation is toxic, it irritates eye and skin. Flammable, flash point is 406 ℃, there is a greater risk of combustion. The allowable concentration in air of US is 100ppm (305mg/m3).


Sec-butyl alcohol is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.


It is Stored in metal drums, to prevent mechanical damage, best stored in a cool, dry and ventilated, non-flammable place, away from all possible sources of ignition, separated from strong oxidants.

Transport requirements

During transportation, "flammable liquid" shall be marked logo on the container. Others should be the same with "n-butanol".

Extinguish measures

When firing, dry powder fire extinguishing agent, fire-resistant foam or CO2 can be used. Water fighting is invalid, but spray with water in the fire container to keep it cool. If spills, and spills are not lighted, water mist can wash spray spills from the fire, and dilute to non-flammable mixtures. If necessary, water mist can be used to protect the operator to stop the leakage. Other items see the "n-butanol."

Hazards & Safety Information

Category: Flammable liquid Toxicity grading: Poisoning Acute toxicity Oral-rat LD50: 6480 mg/kg, Intravenous-Mouse LD50: 764 mg/kg Stimulus data Eyes-rabbit 100 mg/24 hours??? moderate, Skin-rabbit 500 mg/24 hr? mild Hazardous characteristics It is explosive when mixed with air, self-oxidized to form explosive peroxides. Flammability hazard characteristics in case of fire, high temperature, oxidant, it is flammable, burning to generate irritation smoke, spontaneous combustion in contact with chromium trioxide. Storage characteristics Treasury ventilation low-temperature drying, and it is stored from oxidants. Extinguishing agent Dry powder, water spray, carbon dioxide, foam Professional standards TWA 100 PPM (310 mg/m3)

Physical properties

Clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odor. Experimentally determined detection and recognition odor threshold concentrations were 400 μg/m3 (120 ppbv) and 1.2 mg/m3 (410 ppbv), respectively (Hellman and Small, 1974).

Production Methods

Different sources of media describe the Production Methods of 78-92-2 differently. You can refer to the following data:
1. There are two ways to produce 2-Butanol in industry. The first is the butene hydration method. After pretreatment, n-butene is hydrated with sulfuric acid to obtain 2-Butanol, which is purified to obtain 2-Butanol. The second is the ion exchange resin hydration method, which uses n-butene as raw material, acidic cation exchange resin as catalyst, carries out liquid-phase esterification reaction with organic acid, and then undergoes hydrolysis and rectification to obtain the product.
2. 2-Butanol is produced commercially by the indirect hydration of n-butenes.


ChEBI: A secondary alcohol that is butane substituted by a hydroxy group at position 2.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with an alcohol odor. Flash point below 0 °F. Less dense than water. Vapors heavier than air. Soluble in water. Moderately irritates the eyes and skin. Prolonged and repeated contact may cause defatting and drying of the skin. Vapors may irritate the nose, throat and respiratory tract. May be harmful by ingestion.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Attacks plastics. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980. p. 236]. Acetyl bromide reacts violently with alcohols or water (Merck 11th ed. 1989). Mixtures of alcohols with concentrated sulfuric acid and strong hydrogen peroxide can cause explosions. Example: An explosion will occur if dimethylbenzylcarbinol is added to 90% hydrogen peroxide then acidified with concentrated sulfuric acid. Mixtures of ethyl alcohol with concentrated hydrogen peroxide form powerful explosives. Mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and 1-phenyl-2-methyl propyl alcohol tend to explode if acidified with 70% sulfuric acid [Chem. Eng. News 45(43):73 1967; J, Org. Chem. 28:1893 1963]. Alkyl hypochlorites are violently explosive. They are readily obtained by reacting hypochlorous acid and alcohols either in aqueous solution or mixed aqueous-carbon tetrachloride solutions. Chlorine plus alcohols would similarly yield alkyl hypochlorites. They decompose in the cold and explode on exposure to sunlight or heat. Tertiary hypochlorites are less unstable than secondary or primary hypochlorites [NFPA 491 M 1991]. Base-catalysed reactions of isocyanates with alcohols should be carried out in inert solvents. Such reactions in the absence of solvents often occur with explosive violence [Wischmeyer 1969].


Toxic, mutagenic, upper respiratory tract irritant, central nervous system impairment.

Health Hazard

Exposure to 2-butanol may cause irritationof the eyes and skin. The latter effect isproduced by its defatting action on skin. Thistoxic property is mild and similar to thatof other butanol isomers. High concentrationmay produce narcosis. The narcotic effect isstronger than that of n-butanol, probably dueto the higher vapor pressure of the secondaryalcohol.The toxicity is lower than that of itsprimary alcohol analogue.LD50 value, oral (rats): 6480 mg/kg.

Flammability and Explosibility


Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by ingestion. Experimental reproductive effects. A skin and eye irritant. See also nBUTYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLS. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Auto-oxidizes to an explosive peroxide. Ignites on contact with chromium trioxide. To fight fire, use water spray, alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

Environmental fate

Biological. Bridié et al. (1979) reported BOD and COD values of 2.15 and 2.49 g/g using filtered effluent from a biological sanitary waste treatment plant. These values were determined using a standard dilution method at 20 °C for a period of 5 d. The ThOD for sec-butyl alcohol is 2.59 g/g. In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d adaptation period, 98.5% COD removal was achieved. The average rate of biodegradation was 55.0 mg COD/g?h (Pitter, 1976). Photolytic. The estimated half-life of sec-butyl alcohol for the reaction of OH radicals in air ranges from 129 d to 23 yr (Anbar and Neta, 1967). Chemical/Physical. sec-Butyl alcohol will not hydrolyze in water because it does not contain a hydrolyzable group (Kollig, 1993).

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 78-92-2 includes 5 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 2 digits, 7 and 8 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 9 and 2 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 78-92:
72 % 10 = 2
So 78-92-2 is a valid CAS Registry Number.

78-92-2 Well-known Company Product Price

  • Brand
  • (Code)Product description
  • CAS number
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (43315)  2-Butanol, anhydrous, 99%   

  • 78-92-2

  • 250ml

  • 335.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (43315)  2-Butanol, anhydrous, 99%   

  • 78-92-2

  • 1L

  • 761.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (41871)  2-Butanol, anhydrous, 99%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal? bottles   

  • 78-92-2

  • 250ml

  • 338.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (41871)  2-Butanol, anhydrous, 99%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal? bottles   

  • 78-92-2

  • 1L

  • 791.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A18658)  (±)-2-Butanol, 99%   

  • 78-92-2

  • 100ml

  • 126.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A18658)  (±)-2-Butanol, 99%   

  • 78-92-2

  • 500ml

  • 215.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A18658)  (±)-2-Butanol, 99%   

  • 78-92-2

  • 2500ml

  • 744.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (294810)  2-Butanol  anhydrous, 99.5%

  • 78-92-2

  • 294810-100ML

  • 521.82CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (294810)  2-Butanol  anhydrous, 99.5%

  • 78-92-2

  • 294810-1L

  • 1,024.92CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (B85919)  2-Butanol  ReagentPlus®, ≥99%

  • 78-92-2

  • B85919-1L

  • 634.14CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (B85919)  2-Butanol  ReagentPlus®, ≥99%

  • 78-92-2

  • B85919-4L

  • 1,618.11CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (B85919)  2-Butanol  ReagentPlus®, ≥99%

  • 78-92-2

  • B85919-6X1L

  • 380.25CNY

  • Detail



According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 17, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 17, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name butan-2-ol

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names 3-Methylthiocrotonic acid,S-sec-butyl ester

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:78-92-2 SDS

78-92-2Relevant articles and documents



Paragraph 0104; 0106, (2022/02/05)

The present invention provides a method for selectively producing an alcohol by efficiently hydrogenating a lactone. The present invention is a method for producing an alcohol, the method including hydrogenating a substrate lactone represented by Formula (1), in the presence of a catalyst described below, to produce an alcohol that is represented by Formula (2). In the formulae, R represents a divalent hydrocarbon group which may have a hydroxyl group. The catalyst comprises: metal species including M1 and M2; and a support supporting the metal species, and wherein M1 is rhodium, platinum, ruthenium, iridium, or palladium; M2 is tin, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, or rhenium; and the support is hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydrotalcite, or ZrO2.

Hydrogen-Catalyzed Acid Transformation for the Hydration of Alkenes and Epoxy Alkanes over Co-N Frustrated Lewis Pair Surfaces

Deng, Qiang,Deng, Shuguang,Gao, Ruijie,Li, Xiang,Tsang, Shik Chi Edman,Wang, Jun,Zeng, Zheling,Zou, Ji-Jun

, p. 21294 - 21301 (2021/12/17)

Hydrogen (H2) is widely used as a reductant for many hydrogenation reactions; however, it has not been recognized as a catalyst for the acid transformation of active sites on solid surface. Here, we report the H2-promoted hydration of alkenes (such as styrenes and cyclic alkenes) and epoxy alkanes over single-atom Co-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon (Co-NC) via a transformation mechanism of acid-base sites. Specifically, the specific catalytic activity and selectivity of Co-NC are superior to those of classical solid acids (acidic zeolites and resins) per micromole of acid, whereas the hydration catalysis does not take place under a nitrogen atmosphere. Detailed investigations indicate that H2 can be heterolyzed on the Co-N bond to form Hδ-Co-N-Hδ+ and then be converted into OHδ-Co-N-Hδ+ accompanied by H2 generation via a H2O-mediated path, which significantly reduces the activation energy for hydration reactions. This work not only provides a novel catalytic method for hydration reactions but also removes the conceptual barriers between hydrogenation and acid catalysis.

Ruthenium-p-cymene Complex Side-Wall Covalently Bonded to Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Hybrid Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst

Blanco, Matías,Cembellín, Sara,Agnoli, Stefano,Alemán, José

, p. 5156 - 5165 (2021/11/05)

A half-sandwich ruthenium-p-cymene organometallic complex has been immobilized at Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) sidewalls through a stepwise covalent chemistry protocol. The introduction of amino groups by means of diazonium-chemistry protocols leads the grafting at the outer walls of the nanotubes. This hybrid material is active in the transfer hydrogenation of ketones to yield alcohols, using as hydrogen source 2-propanol. SWNT?NH2?Ru presents a broad scope, performing the reaction under aerobic conditions and can be recycled over 9 consecutive reaction runs without losing activity or leaching ruthenium out. Comparison of the activity with related homogeneous catalysts reveals an improved performance due to the covalent bond between the metal and the material, achieving turnover frequencies as high as 192774 h?1.

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