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1-Propanol
Cas No: 71-23-8
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71-23-8 Usage

Introduction

1- Propanol is colorless transparent liquid, with ethanol-like smell, combustible. Soluble in acetone and benzene, miscible with a variety of common organic solvents (e.g., ethers, esters, acids, ketones, and other alcohols). It occurs in nature in crude fusel oils and as fermentation and decomposition products of various vegetables, used mainly as solvent. Azeotropics are formed with a variety of compounds, including aromatics, esters, amines, and ketones (See table below). When the product is oxidized, it can produce propionaldehyde and propionic acid, depending on the reaction conditions and the catalyst; it can form an ester with acid; it can form sodium alkoxide with active metal and be used as organic synthesis catalyst.
  Azeotropic mixture:
Binary azeotropic mixture
The other chemical water carbon tetrachloride benzene cyclohexane toluene n-hexane nitromethane
content (%) of 1-propanol 71.69 11.5 17.1 18.5 50.0 40 51.6
azeotropic points 87.72°C 72.80°C 77.10°C 74.69°C 92.60°C 73.10°C 89.09°C

Ternary azeotropic mixture
The other two chemicals water, carbon tetrachloride water, benzene water, cyclohexane
content (%) of these two chemicals 5.0, 84.0 8.6, 82.4 8.5, 81.5
azeotropic points 65.4℃ 68.5℃ 66.6℃

description

1-propanol is the compound with the hydrogen atom in the propane molecules being replaced by hydroxyl group. Because the hydroxyl group can substitute the hydrogen atoms contained in the carbons in the two terminals of carbon chain or middle carbon, thus generating two isomers, n-propyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol.
The chemical property of the 1-propanol is similar to that of ethanol. It is the byproduct during the process of the methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. At room temperature and normal pressure, it appears as colorless transparent liquid with fragrance odor. In industry, it is prepared through the reaction between ethylene, carbon monoxide and hydrogen under high pressure and cobalt catalysis; alternatively through the hydration of propylene under the action of sulfate or through the catalytic hydrogenation of acetone. It is commonly used as a solvent with irritating effect on the eyes and mucosa. Inhalation of propyl alcohol steam can lead to dizziness, headache and vomiting, etc.

Health Hazard

Contact with eyes is extremely irritating and may cause burns. Vapors irritate nose and throat. In high concentrations, may cause nausea, dizziness, headache, and stupor.

Definition

ChEBI: The parent member of the class of propan-1-ols that is propane in which a hydrogen of one of the methyl groups is replaced by a hydroxy group.

Uses

The propanols are used mainly as solvents for coatings; in antifreeze compositions and household and personal products; and as chemical intermediates for the production of esters, amines, and other organic derivatives. As a solvent, 1-propanol is used principally in printing inks, paint, cosmetics, pesticides, and insecticides.
1-Propanol is used commercially to produce glycol ethers. These are characterized by dual functionality, which imparts high solvency, chemical stability, and water compatibility.

Air & Water Reactions

Highly flammable. Water soluble.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a sharp musty odor like rubbing alcohol. Flash point 53-77°F. Autoignites at 700°F. Vapors are heavier than air and mildly irritate the eyes, nose, and throat. Density approximately 6.5 lb / gal. Used in making cosmetics, skin and hair preparations, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquer formulations, dye solutions, antifreezes, rubbing alcohols, soaps, window cleaners, acetone and other chemicals and products.

Purification Methods

The main impurities in n-propyl alcohol are usually water and 2-propen-1-ol, reflecting the commercial production by hydration of propene. Water can be removed by azeotropic distillation either directly (azeotrope contains 28% water) or by using a ternary system, e.g. by also adding *benzene. Alternatively, for removal of gross amounts of water, reflux over CaO for several hours is desirable, followed by distillation and a further drying. To obtain more nearly anhydrous alcohol, suitable drying agents are firstly NaOH, CaSO4 or K2CO3, then CaH2, aluminium amalgam, magnesium activated with iodine, or a small amount of sodium. Alternatively, the alcohol can be refluxed with n-propylsuccinate or phthalate in a method similar to the one described under EtOH. Allyl alcohol is removed by adding bromine (15mL/L) and then fractionally distilling from a small amount of K2CO3. Propionaldehyde, also formed in the bromination, is removed as the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone. n-Propyl alcohol can be dried down to 20ppm of water by passage through a column of pre-dried molecular sieves (type 3 or 4A, heated for 3hours at 300o) in a current of nitrogen. Distillation from sulfanilic or tartaric acids removes impurities. Albrecht [J Am Chem Soc 82 3813 1960] obtained spectroscopically pure material by heating with charcoal to 50-60o, filtering and adding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and a few drops of conc H2SO4. After standing for several hours, the mixture is cooled to 0o, filtered and distilled in a vacuum. Gold and Satchell [J Chem Soc 1938 1963] heated n-propyl alcohol with 3-nitrophthalic anhydride at 76-110o for 15hours, then recrystallised the resulting ester from H2O, *benzene/pet ether (b 100-120o)(3:1), and *benzene. The ester was hydrolysed under reflux with aqueous 7.5M NaOH for 45minutes under nitrogen, followed by distillation (also under nitrogen). The fraction with b 87-92o is dried with K2CO3 and stirred under reduced pressure in the dark over 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, then freshly distilled. Also purify it by adding 2g NaBH4 to 1.5L of alcohol, gently flushing with argon and refluxing for 1day at 50o. Then 2g of freshly cut sodium (washed with propanol) is added and refluxed for one day, and finally distilled, taking the middle fraction [Jou & Freeman J Phys Chem 81 909 1977]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1413.]

Uses

A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.

Fire Hazard

HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.

Reactivity Profile

1-Propanol reacts with alkali metal, nitrides and strong reducing agents to give flammable and/or toxic gases. Reacts with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Converted by oxidizing agents to propanal or propionic acid. May initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents .

Uses

As a solvent for resins and cellulose esters, etc.

Production

  • Isolation from fusel oil
  • Hydroformylation of ethylene (→Propanal), is the primary commercial source of 1-propanol.
  • Liquid-phase catalytic oxidation of propane
  • Propylene being with using zinc oxide/tungsten oxide and lithium hydride as catalysts undergoing at 20.3~25.3MPa and 130~290°C
  • Hydrolysis of halogenated hydrocarbons in alkaline solutions
InChI:InChI=1/C3H8O/c1-2-3-4/h4H,2-3H2,1H3

71-23-8 Well-known Company Product Price

Brand (Code)Product description CAS number Packaging Price Detail
USP (1570406)  1-Propanol  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 71-23-8 1570406-3AMP 4,662.45CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (34871)  1-Propanol  for HPLC, ≥99.9% 71-23-8 34871-6X1L 6,236.10CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (34871)  1-Propanol  for HPLC, ≥99.9% 71-23-8 34871-1L 1,277.64CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (34871)  1-Propanol  for HPLC, ≥99.9% 71-23-8 34871-100ML 503.10CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (402893)  1-Propanol  ACS reagent, ≥99.5% 71-23-8 402893-2.5L 1,984.32CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (402893)  1-Propanol  ACS reagent, ≥99.5% 71-23-8 402893-1L 856.44CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (402893)  1-Propanol  ACS reagent, ≥99.5% 71-23-8 402893-500ML 617.76CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (24135)  1-Propanol  ≥99% (GC), purum 71-23-8 24135-4X2.5L-R 4,068.09CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (24135)  1-Propanol  ≥99% (GC), purum 71-23-8 24135-6X1L-R 3,100.50CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (24135)  1-Propanol  ≥99% (GC), purum 71-23-8 24135-2.5L-R 1,216.80CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (24135)  1-Propanol  ≥99% (GC), purum 71-23-8 24135-1L-R 618.93CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (33538)  1-Propanol  puriss. p.a., Reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.5% (GC) 71-23-8 33538-4X2.5L-R 7,294.95CNY Detail

71-23-8SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 16, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 16, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name propan-1-ol

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Propanol-1

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives -> Flavoring Agents
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:71-23-8 SDS

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