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Cas Database




  • Product Name:Phenylethene

  • CAS Number: 100-42-5

  • EINECS:202-851-5

  • Molecular Weight:104.152

  • Molecular Formula: C8H8

  • HS Code:2902500000

  • Mol File:100-42-5.mol

Synonyms:Styrene(8CI);Cinnamene;Ethenylbenzene;NSC 62785;Phenethylene;Phenylethene;Phenylethylene;Styrol;Styrole;Styrolene;Styropol SO;TTB 7302;Vinylbenzene;Vinylbenzol;

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Safety information and MSDS view more

  • Pictogram(s):HarmfulXn,ToxicT,FlammableF

  • Hazard Codes: Xn:Harmful;

  • Signal Word:Danger

  • Hazard Statement:H226 Flammable liquid and vapourH315 Causes skin irritation H319 Causes serious eye irritation H332 Harmful if inhaled H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure H361d

  • First-aid measures: General adviceConsult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.If inhaled Fresh air, rest. Refer for medical attention. In case of skin contact Remove contaminated clothes. Rinse and then wash skin with water and soap. In case of eye contact First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easily possible), then refer for medical attention. If swallowed Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give one or two glasses of water to drink. Rest. Moderate irritation of eyes and skin. High vapor concentrations cause dizziness, drunkeness, and anesthesia. (USCG, 1999)Excerpt from ERG Guide 133 [Flammable Solids]: Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Contact may cause burns to skin and eyes. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution. (ERG, 2016) Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand-valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR as necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds/

  • Fire-fighting measures: Suitable extinguishing media Use water spray to cool unopened containers. Behavior in Fire: Vapor is heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. At elevated temperatures such as in fire conditions, polymerization may take place which may lead to container explosion. (USCG, 1999)Excerpt from ERG Guide 133 [Flammable Solids]: Flammable/combustible material. May be ignited by friction, heat, sparks or flames. Some may burn rapidly with flare-burning effect. Powders, dusts, shavings, borings, turnings or cuttings may explode or burn with explosive violence. Substance may be transported in a molten form at a temperature that may be above its flash point. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. (ERG, 2016) Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

  • Accidental release measures: Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8. Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Ventilation. Remove all ignition sources. Sweep spilled substance into covered suitable, labelled containers. If styrene is spilled or leaked ... /in/ small quantities, absorb on paper towels. Evaporate in a safe place (such as a fume hood). Allow sufficient time for evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork. Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible materials. Large quantities can be collected and atomized in a suitable combustion chamber. Combustion may be improved by mixing with a more flammable liq.

  • Handling and storage: Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2. Fireproof. Separated from incompatible materials. See Chemical Dangers. Cool. Keep in the dark. Store only if stabilized. Store in an area without drain or sewer access.Must be inhibited during storage.

  • Exposure controls/personal protection:Occupational Exposure limit valuesRecommended Exposure Limit: 15 Minute Short-Term Exposure Limit: 100 ppm (425 mg/cu m).Recommended Exposure Limit: 10 Hour Time-Weighted Average: 50 ppm (215 mg/cu m).Biological limit values Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday. Eye/face protection Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). Skin protection Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it. Respiratory protection Wear dust mask when handling large quantities. Thermal hazards

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Relevant articles and documentsAll total 1443 Articles be found



, p. 3579 - 3580 (1981)

It is shown that Ni-B catalysts modified with a small amount of copper(II) salt have a hgher selectivity than palladium and modified Raney nickel catalysts for partial hydrogenation of phenylacetylene, 1-heptyne, 1-ethynylcyclohexene, and propargyl alcoho

Defect-site promoted surface reorganization in nanocrystalline ceria for the low-temperature activation of ethylbenzene


, p. 3062 - 3063 (2007)

Defect-site enriched nanocrystalline ceria prepared by an alcoholysis method favors oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using nitrous oxide with high conversion and selectivity at much lower temperatures compared to ceria samples prepared by other c

The reactivity of ketyl and alkyl radicals in reactions with carbonyl compounds


, p. 2110 - 2116 (1998)

A parabolic model of bimolecular radical reactions was used for analysis of the hydrogen transfer reactions of ketyl radicals: >C+OH + R1COR2 → >C=O + R1R2C+OH. The parameters describing the reactivity of the reagents were calculated from the experimental data. The parameters that characterize the reactions of ketyl and alkyl radicals as hydrogen donors with olefins and with carbonyl compounds were obtained: >C+OH + R1CH=CH2 → >C=O + R1C+ HCH3; >R1CH=CH2 + R2C+HCH2R3 → R2C+HCH3 + R2CH=CHR3. These parameters were used to calculate the activation energies of these transformations. The kinetic parameters of reactions of hydrogen abstraction by free radicals and molecules (aldehydes, ketones, and quinones) from the C-H and O-H bonds were compared.

Mercury in Organic Chemistry. 25. Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed Alkenylation of Arylmercurials

Larock, R. C.,Narayanan, K.,Hershberger, S. S.

, p. 4377 - 4380 (1983)

Arylmercurials and vinyl halides are catalytically cross-coupled to aryl olefins in fair to good yields by 10percent ClRh(PPh3)3.This reaction appears to proceed through an arylvinylrhodium(III) intermediate.

An ionic compound containing Ru(III)-complex cation and phosphotungstate anion as the efficient and recyclable catalyst for clean aerobic oxidation of alcohols

Wang, Sa-Sa,Zhang, Jing,Zhou, Cheng-Liang,Vo-Thanh, Giang,Liu, Ye

, p. 152 - 154 (2012)

A novel ionic compound (3, [RuCl4(L)2] 3PW12O40) containing the Ru(III)-complex cation and α-Keggin-type phosphotungstate anion was synthesized and proven to be the efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidations of alcohols free of base and nitroxyl radical. Specially, 3 could be reused at least five runs without obvious activity loss. The stability of 3 was dramatically improved due to the incorporation of [PW12O40]3 - as the counter-anions, leading to its available recyclability.

Anhydrous Copper(II) Sulfate: An Efficient Catalyst for the Liquid-Phase Dehydration of Alcohols

Hoffman, Robert V.,Bishop, Richard D.,Fitch, Patricia M.,Hardenstein, Richard

, p. 917 - 919 (1980)


Thermal Ring-Splitting Reactions of Diarylcyclobutanes: Significance of Steric Effects on Orbital Interactions in Transition States and Biradical Intermediates

Yasuda, Masahide,Yoshida, Kouhei,Shima, Kensuke,Pac, Chyongjin,Yanagida, Shozo

, p. 1943 - 1950 (1989)

Regiochemistry and rectivities in the thermal ring-splitting reactions of diarylcyclobutanes (1-5) have been studied and shown to depend on the stable conformations and rotational mobilities of the aryl substituents.The reactions of 1 and 2 result in a regiospecific symmetric cleavage to give indene or styrene along with significant isomerization of 2 to 3.In the cases of 3-5 both the symmetric and unsymmetric cleavages competitively occur with decreasing symmetric-to-unsymmetric ratios with an increase in methyl substitution.The olefin products from 4 are mixtures of cis- and trans-2-butene, cis- and trans-β-methylstyrene, and trans-stilbene.Thermochemical analyses combined with product analyses indicate that the symetric cleavage of 1 and the unsymmetric cleavage of 3 proceed with a concerted mechanism, whereas 1,4-biradicals are involved in the other reactions.Structure-reactivity relationships of the present reactions are discussed in terms of mixing of the ?* character in a bonding MO by specific ?-?* interactions, depending on the conformational situations of the aryl groups and in terms of the steric effects which destabilize 1,4-biradicals as well as transition states of the biradical fragmentation to the olefins.



, p. 3190 (1933)


New Ruthenium-Molybdenum and -Tungsten Heterodinuclear Complexes with trans-Styryl Ligand

Fukuoka, Atsushi,Ohashi, Nobutoshi,Komiya, Sanshiro

, p. 69 - 72 (1992)

New styryl ruthenium-molybdenum and -tungsten complexes Cp(CO)3M-Ru (trans-styryl)(CO)(PPh3)2 have been prepared by the metathetical reactions of Ru(trans-styryl)Cl(CO)(PPh3)2 with Na.The reactions of 2 with CO and with PMe3

Palladium-catalyzed convenient one-pot synthesis of multi-substituted 2-pyrones via transesterification and alkenylation of enynoates

Pathare, Ramdas S.,Sharma, Shivani,Gopal, Kandasamy,Sawant, Devesh M.,Pardasani, Ram T.

, p. 1387 - 1389 (2017)

An efficient one-pot protocol for the synthesis of multi-substituted 2-pyrone derivatives from internal alkynes and unactivated alkenes is reported. The methodology involves difunctionalization of internal alkynes by using Pd(II) as a catalyst alongwith X-Phos as ligand via 6-endo transesterification and subsequent alkenylation pathway. Notable features include simple and easily available starting materials, including a range of unactivated alkenes, reduced synthetic steps and mild reaction conditions with high efficiency.

Atomic layer deposition of aluminium on anatase: A solid acid catalyst with remarkable performances for alcohol dehydration

Song, Yingji,Xu, Shaodan,Ling, Fei,Tian, Panpan,Ye, Tao,Yu, Deqing,Chu, Xuefeng,Lin, Yingzi,Yang, Xiaotian,Tang, Junhong

, p. 34 - 38 (2017)

Here we reported the synthesis of Al sites with ultra-high dispersion on anatase by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method (ALD-Al/TiO2), which exhibits Br?nsted acidity and satisfactory activity in the dehydration of alcohols, a key step in the deoxygenation of biomass. More importantly, the ALD-Al/TiO2 catalyst has good stability, which is sintering-resistant and gives constant catalytic performances after treatments at high temperature.

Readily recyclable catalysts of zeolite nanoparticles linked with polymer chains

Okamoto, Masaki,Watanabe, Satoshi,Nitta, Junya

, p. 55 - 60 (2013)

Aggregates of zeolite nanoparticles were linked together with polypropylene oxide or polydimethylsiloxane polymer chains, and were used as catalysts for liquid-phase reactions. The polymer-linked catalysts showed high catalytic activity in esterification of acetic acid with 1-propanol and hydrolysis of ethyl acetate, and were readily separated from reaction mixtures by decantation. Moreover, the linkage with the polymer chains enhanced shape selectivity in esterification of acetic acid with cyclohexanol and dehydration of 1-phenylethanol because of passivating the external acid sites of the zeolite with the polymer.

Liquid-phase dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to styrene over sulfonated D-glucose catalyst

Hasan, Zubair,Hwang, Jin-Soo,Jhung, Sung Hwa

, p. 30 - 33 (2012)

Dehydration of 1-phenylethanol to produce styrene has been studied in liquid phase without any solvent with carbon-based solid acid catalysts prepared in one step from renewable resources like d-glucose for the first time. The carbon-based catalyst shows

Phosphine and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands on Pt(II) shift selectivity from ethylene hydrophenylation toward benzene vinylation

Brosnahan, Anna M.,Talbot, Austin,McKeown, Bradley A.,Kalman, Steven E.,Gunnoe, T. Brent,Ess, Daniel H.,Sabat, Michal

, p. 248 - 255 (2015)

Abstract A series of Pt(II) complexes of the type ([(L~L)Pt(L′)(Ph)][BAr′4] (L~L = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane, 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, (N-pyrrolyl)2P(CH2)2P(N-pyrrolyl)2, 1,3-bis(diphe

Pyrolysis of Ethylbenzene

Brooks, C. Terence,Peacock, Stanley J.,Reuben, Bryan G.

, p. 3187 - 3202 (1982)

The pyrolysis of ethylbenzene has been studied using a static reactor.At low conversion hydrogen and styrene are the major products together with methane, toluene, ethylene, ethane and benzene plus traces of higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons.The pyroly

Catalytic reactions of samarium(II) iodide

Corey,Zheng, Guo Zhu

, p. 2045 - 2048 (1997)

A system for in situ regeneration of SmI2 from SmI3 is described which allows the annulation of ketones to γ-lactones, the deoxygenation of oxiranes to olefins and radical π-cyclization to be conducted with 10 mole % SmI2.

β-Cyclodextrin as a Molecular Reaction Vessel: Reactions of Included Phenylmethyldiazirine

Abelt, Christopher J.,Pleier, Jennifer M.

, p. 2159 - 2162 (1988)

Phenylmethyldiazirine forms a stable, solid complex with β-cyclodextrin.The diazirine was decomposed by pyrolysis or irradiation of the complex, and the reaction products were analyzed.The major volatile products consist of the isomeric 1,2-diphenyl-1-methylcyclopropanes.Under photolytic conditions a significant amount of styrene also is formed.The selectivity for trans isomer formation is 10 times greater from the CD complex than from the neat state.Carbene insertion products with β-cyclodextrin are formed under both reaction conditions.The product distributions are explained by cage and shape-selective effects exerted by β-cyclodextrin.

Reduction of Organic Halides with Diethyl Phosphonate and Triethylamine

Hirao, Toshikazu,Kohno, Shuichiro,Ohshiro, Yoshiki,Agawa, Toshio

, p. 1881 - 1882 (1983)

Reduction of organic halides with diethyl phosphonate and triethylamine is surveyed.


Wakita, Yoshiaki,Yasunaga, Tomoyuki,Kojima, Masaharu

, p. 261 - 268 (1985)

Secondary and/or tertiary alcohols and unsymmetrical ketones have been obtained in moderate to good yields by palladium-catalyzed (5 molpercent) carbonylative coupling of aryl iodides with alkylaluminum compounds under very mild conditions (20-50 deg C, 1 atm of carbon monoxide).The type of th reaction product depended on the aluminum reagent employed.While the selective formation of secondary alcohols was observed in the reaction with i-Bu3Al, the use of Et3Al led to a mixture of a ketone and two alcoholic products.With Et2AlCl predominantly unsymmetrical ketones were produced.In all cases, formation of directly cross-coupled products was not observed.DME and benzene can be used as solvents, but THF is unsuitable.Nickel catalysts were found to be ineffective for this reaction.

Protophilic versus Silicophilic Reactions in β-Substituted Silanes

Jones, Steven L.,Stirling, Charles J. M.

, p. 1153 - 1154 (1988)

Reactivity in β-eliminations mediated by nucleophilic attack at silicon has been measured as a function of nucleophile, leaving group, and α-substituent; in some instances competition between protophilic and silicophilic reactions is observed.

Mechanistic Studies of Single-Step Styrene Production Catalyzed by Rh Complexes with Diimine Ligands: An Evaluation of the Role of Ligands and Induction Period

Zhu, Weihao,Luo, Zhongwen,Chen, Junqi,Liu, Chang,Yang, Lu,Dickie, Diane A.,Liu, Naiming,Zhang, Sen,Davis, Robert J.,Gunnoe, T. Brent

, p. 7457 - 7475 (2019)

Studies of catalytic benzene alkenylation using different diimine ligated Rh(I) acetate complexes and Cu(OAc)2 as the oxidant revealed statistically identical results in terms of activity and product selectivity. Under ethylene pressure, two representative diimine ligated rhodium(I) acetate complexes were demonstrated to exchange the diimine ligand with ethylene rapidly to form [Rh(μ-OAc)(??2-C2H4)2]2 and free diimine. Thus, it was concluded that diimine ligands are not likely coordinated to the active Rh catalysts under catalytic conditions. At 150 °C under catalytic conditions using commercial Cu(OAc)2 as the oxidant, [Rh(μ-OAc)(??2-C2H4)2]2 undergoes rapid decomposition to form catalytically inactive and insoluble Rh species, followed by gradual dissolution of the insoluble Rh to form the soluble Rh, which is active for styrene production. Thus, the observed induction period under some conditions is likely due to the formation of insoluble Rh (rapid), followed by redissolution of the Rh (slow). The Rh decomposition process can be suppressed and the catalytically active Rh species maintained by using soluble Cu(II) oxidants or Cu(OAc)2 that has been preheated. In such cases, an induction period is not observed.

Use of Kinetic Isotope Effects in Mechanism Studies. 3. Measurements of Hydrogen Isotope Effects on the Primary Chlorine Effect during Elimination Reactions

Koch, H. F.,Koch, J. G.,Tumas, W.,McLennan, D. J.,Dobson, B.,Lodder, G.

, p. 7955 - 7956 (1980)


Selective Semi-Hydrogenation of Terminal Alkynes Promoted by Bimetallic Cu-Pd Nanoparticles

Buxaderas, Eduardo,Volpe, María Alicia,Radivoy, Gabriel

, p. 1466 - 1472 (2019)

The selective semi-hydrogenation of terminal alkynes was efficiently performed, under mild reaction conditions (H 2 balloon, 110 °C), promoted by a bimetallic nanocatalyst composed of copper and palladium nanoparticles (5:1 weight ratio) supported on mesostructured silica (MCM-48). The Cu-PdNPS@MCM-48 catalyst, which demonstrated to be highly chemoselective towards the alkyne functionality, is readily prepared from commercial materials and can be recovered and reused after thermal treatment followed by reduction under H 2 atmosphere.

Electrochemically supported deoxygenation of epoxides into alkenes in aqueous solution

Huang, Jing-Mei,Lin, Zhi-Quan,Chen, Dong-Song

, p. 22 - 25 (2012)

An efficient synthesis of alkenes from epoxides in a mixture of saturated aqueous NH4Br and tetrahydrofuran (8:1) has been developed in an undivided cell fitted with a pair of zinc electrodes, and it is proposed that the reaction is mediated by Zn(0) with a hierarchically organized nanostructure.



, p. 5311 (1950)


Photoredox Catalyzed Sulfonylation of Multisubstituted Allenes with Ru(bpy)3Cl2 or Rhodamine B

Chen, Jingyun,Chen, Shufang,Jiang, Jun,Lu, Qianqian,Shi, Liyang,Xu, Zekun,Yimei, Zhao

supporting information, (2021/11/09)

A highly regio- and stereoselective sulfonylation of allenes was developed that provided direct access to α, β-substituted unsaturated sulfone. By means of visible-light photoredox catalysis, the free radicals produced by p-toluenesulfonic acid reacted with multisubstituted allenes to obtain Markovnikov-type vinyl sulfones with Ru(bpy)3Cl2 or Rhodamine B as photocatalyst. The yield of this reaction could reach up to 91%. A series of unsaturated sulfones would be used for further transformation to some valuable compounds.

Mild and efficient desulfurization of thiiranes with MoCl5/Zn system

Lee, Yeong Jin,Shin, Jeong Won,Yoo, Byung Woo

, (2021/11/10)

Desulfurization of a variety of thiiranes to alkenes occurs chemoselectively in high yields upon treatment with MoCl5/Zn system under mild conditions. The new methodology demonstrates high functional group tolerance toward chloro, bromo, fluoro, methoxy, ester, ether and keto groups.

Oxidative Alkenylation of Arenes Using Supported Rh Materials: Evidence that Active Catalysts are Formed by Rh Leaching

Luo, Zhongwen,Whitcomb, Colby A.,Kaylor, Nicholas,Zhang, Yulu,Zhang, Sen,Davis, Robert J.,Gunnoe, T. Brent

, p. 260 - 270 (2020/12/01)

This work focuses on the synthesis of supported Rh materials and study of their efficacy as pre-catalysts for the oxidative alkenylation of arenes. Rhodium particles supported on silica (Rh/SiO2; ~3.6 wt% Rh) and on nitrogen-doped carbon (Rh/NC

Process route upstream and downstream products

Process route

Conditions Yield
With acetic acid; at 105 ℃;
With methanol; at 150 ℃;
Conditions Yield
With diethyl ether;
With chromium chloride; diethyl ether;
With chromium chloride; diethyl ether;
With diethyl ether;
Conditions Yield
With diethyl ether;
With chromium chloride; diethyl ether;
With chromium chloride; diethyl ether;
With diethyl ether;
Conditions Yield
With BaFe0.02Zr0.98O3; at 549.84 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;
With carbon dioxide; at 544.84 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;
at 525 ℃; Leiten ueber Chrom(III)-oxyd;
With Ni-V-Sb; water; oxygen; at 599.9 ℃; for 0.000277778h; Product distribution; Mechanism; var. catalyst, var. temp., time, and partial pressure of ethylbenzene;
With metal oxide incorporated zirconium vanadate; at 400 ℃; Flow reactor;
Conditions Yield
With carbon dioxide; at 550 ℃; for 1h; under 750.075 Torr;
TiO2-ZrO2 P; In gas; at 620 ℃;
92.2 % Chromat.
5.8 % Chromat.
3.4 % Chromat.
zirconium(IV) oxide; In gas; at 620 ℃;
89.0 % Chromat.
3.4 % Chromat.
7.6 % Chromat.
TiO2-ZrO2 A; In gas; at 620 ℃;
1.1 % Chromat.
2.1 % Chromat.
96.8 % Chromat.
Leiten ueber Zinkchromat-Katalysatoren;
at 550 - 650 ℃;
zinc(II) oxide; at 599.9 ℃; Product distribution; variously modified ZnO;
vanadia; magnesium oxide; at 520 ℃; Product distribution; var. catalysts (var. temp. of calcination);
With cobalt(II) oxide; air; water; vanadia; magnesium oxide; at 439.9 - 559.9 ℃; Rate constant; Thermodynamic data; apparent activation energy; pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius equation;
With air; Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4; at 500 ℃; Further Variations:; Reagents; Product distribution;
lanthanum(III) oxide; tin(IV) oxide; at 449.85 - 499.85 ℃; for 3h; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Temperatures; Product distribution; Enzymatic reaction;
samarium(III) oxide; vanadia; at 475 ℃; for 1h; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Temperatures; Product distribution;
vanadia; at 475 ℃; Further Variations:; Catalysts; Product distribution;
With (H3O)2[(Mo6Cl8)Cl6]*6H2O; hydrogen; at 400 ℃; Product distribution;
With cerium(IV) oxide; air; molybdenum; at 500 ℃; for 2h; Further Variations:; Reagents; Product distribution;
lanthanum nitrate (7 wtpercent as lanthanum metal); potassium nitrate (1 wtpercent as potassium metal); alumina; mixture of, calcined; at 522 - 582 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3); at 555 - 602 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
lanthanum carbonate (30 wtpercent as lanthanum metal); cerium carbonate (2.6 wtpercent as cerium metal); neodymium carbonate (1.5 wtpercent as neodymium metal); praseodymium carbonate (9 wtpercent as praseodymium metal); nitric acid; potassium nitrate (1 wtpercent as potassium metal); alumina; mixture of, calcined; at 542 - 602 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous reaction;
iron and potassium salts; at 590 - 630 ℃; under 300.03 - 637.564 Torr; Conversion of starting material;
With carbon dioxide; at 660 ℃; Autoclave;
With Mg3Fe0.2Co0.25Al0.5; at 550 ℃; for 3h; Inert atmosphere;
With aluminum oxide; at 600 ℃; for 20h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; hydrogen; for 5h; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst; Kinetics; Inert atmosphere;
With nitrogen doped reducedgraphene oxide dispersed in nanodiamond; at 550 ℃; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; at 544.84 ℃; under 760.051 Torr;
With nanodiamond(at)carbon nitride; at 550 ℃; for 20h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Inert atmosphere;
With carbon dioxide; at 550 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Reagent/catalyst;
Conditions Yield
With methoxy(cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) dimer; N,N-Dimethylacrylamide; 3-Methoxybenzoic acid; 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene; In toluene; at 90 ℃; for 24h; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox; Sealed tube;
With sodium amalgam; Behandeln mit Wasser;
Conditions Yield
With C21H29ClIrN4O2(1+)*CF3O3S(1-); In 1,2-dichloro-benzene; at 150 ℃; for 4h; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere;
With 2,4,6-tripropyl-1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane-2,4,6-trioxide; In ethyl acetate; at 0 ℃; for 3h;
With para-tert-butylphenol; toluene-4-sulfonic acid; In toluene; at 130 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Large scale;
toluene-4-sulfonic acid; at 225 - 232 ℃; under 300.03 - 322.532 Torr;
With γ-iron(III) oxide; at 219 - 223 ℃;
With MoO2Cl2(H2O)2; In tetrahydrofuran; for 16h; Reflux; Schlenk technique; Green chemistry;
With copper(II) sulfate; In neat (no solvent); at 120 ℃; for 1.5h; under 25 Torr;
With tin(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate; In toluene; at 120 ℃; for 7h;
toluene-4-sulfonic acid; In toluene; at 25 - 110 ℃; for 1 - 2.5h; Heating / reflux;
at 270 - 350 ℃;
at 380 - 400 ℃; Leiten ueber Aluminiumoxyd;
at 400 - 500 ℃; under 10 - 20 Torr; Leiten ueber Aluminiumoxyd oder Bleicherde;
With sulfuric acid;
With potassium hydroxide; at 140 - 170 ℃;
With potassium hydroxide; at 200 ℃;
With ethanol; silica gel; at 350 ℃;
With iodine;
With phosphoric acid;
With copper; at 330 ℃;
With hydrogenchloride; at 100 ℃;
With sulfuric acid; at 110 ℃;
With (R)-10-camphorsulfonic acid; at 82.6 ℃; under 20 Torr;
With oxalyl dichloride;
With oxalic acid;
With toluene-4-sulfonic acid; at 82.6 ℃; under 20 Torr;
With sodium hydrogen sulfate; silica gel; In hexane; for 0.166667h; Heating;
64 % Chromat.
With aluminium trichloride; In tetrahydrofuran; for 2h; Heating;
75 % Chromat.
H-montmorillonite; In 1,4-dioxane; for 4h; Heating;
75 % Chromat.
methyltrioxorhenium(VII); for 72h;
100 % Turnov.
With sodium hydrogen sulfate; silica gel; In hexane; for 0.166667h; Product distribution; Mechanism; Heating; other solvents, catalysts, different time;
64 % Chromat.
With water; defective calcium hydroxyapatite; at 250 ℃; for 2h; Further Variations:; CaO/P2O5 ratio; Product distribution;
for 52h;
toluene-4-sulfonic acid; at 218 - 239 ℃; under 150.015 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity; Continuous process;
With phenol; star-shaped catalyst; at 300 ℃; under 750.075 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With 4-Ethylphenol; benzyl alcohol; star-shaped catalyst; at 300 ℃; under 750.075 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With benzyl alcohol; phenol; star-shaped catalyst; at 300 ℃; under 750.075 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
With 4-Ethylphenol; star-shaped catalyst; at 300 ℃; under 750.075 Torr; Product distribution / selectivity;
Conversion of starting material;
With o-toluenesulfonic acid; toluene-4-sulfonic acid; at 230 ℃; Product distribution / selectivity; Industry scale;
With rhenium(VII) oxide; In toluene; at 100 ℃; for 24h;
98 %Chromat.
at 160 ℃; for 0.75h; Inert atmosphere; Microwave irradiation; Ionic liquid;
85 %Spectr.
With sodium hydrogen sulfate; at 110 ℃; for 1h; Neat (no solvent);
94 %Spectr.
With sulfonated D-glucose; at 180 ℃; for 2h; under 600.06 Torr; Neat (no solvent);
With LiCl-acidic alumina; at 85 ℃; for 0.05h; Microwave irradiation;
83 %Chromat.
With polydimethytlsiloxane linked ZSM-5 nanoparticle; In toluene; at 110 ℃;
With ZSM-5 n-hexadecyltrimethoxysilane modified; In water; at 165 ℃; for 20h; under 22502.3 Torr; stereoselective reaction; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;
In water; at 180 ℃; for 20h; under 22502.3 Torr; Inert atmosphere; Autoclave;
With ARB (activated redbrick clay) clay catalyst; at 250 ℃; under 760.051 Torr; Green chemistry;
With sulfuric acid; at 119.84 ℃; for 4h; under 2250.23 Torr; Autoclave;
Conditions Yield
With potassium hydroxide; at 200 ℃;
With potassium hydroxide; at 140 - 170 ℃;
With potassium hydroxide; copper flask;
copper(II) sulfate; In tetrachloromethane; for 0.833333h; Heating;
83 % Chromat.
With calcium carbide; caesium carbonate; In water; dimethyl sulfoxide; at 160 ℃; for 16h; Inert atmosphere; Sealed tube;
87 %Spectr.
Conditions Yield
at 140 ℃; for 4h; Ionic liquid;
With copper; In quinoline; at 185 - 195 ℃;
bei der Destillation von zimtsaurem Calcium;
With [Au(1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(O2CAd)]; In toluene; at 120 ℃; for 16h;
90 %Chromat.
With dodecacarbonyl-triangulo-triruthenium; Inert atmosphere;
With ferulic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; sodium chloride; In aq. phosphate buffer; at 25 ℃; pH=7; pH-value; Kinetics; Enzymatic reaction;
With ubiX co-expressed Aspergillus niger Fdc1 protein; potassium chloride; In aq. phosphate buffer; at 25 ℃; pH=6; Kinetics; Enzymatic reaction;
With ferulic acid decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; In aq. phosphate buffer; dimethyl sulfoxide; at 25 ℃; pH=7.4; Kinetics; Enzymatic reaction;
With phenylacrylic acid decarboxylases; In aq. phosphate buffer; Hexadecane; at 30 ℃; Reagent/catalyst; Enzymatic reaction;
With 3Ru*2CO; at 200 ℃; for 4h; Reagent/catalyst; Catalytic behavior; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere; Glovebox; Schlenk technique;
With Saccharomyces cerevisiae ferulic acid decarboxylase; In tetrahydrofuran; aq. phosphate buffer; at 30 ℃; for 1h; pH=6; Temperature; Enzymatic reaction;
Conditions Yield
at 315 - 320 ℃;

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  • Kono Chem Co.,Ltd
  • Business Type:Other
  • Contact Tel:86-29-86107037-8015
  • Emails:info@konochemical.com
  • Main Products:82
  • Country:China (Mainland)
  • Hangzhou Dingyan Chem Co., Ltd
  • Business Type:Manufacturers
  • Contact Tel:86-571-86465881,86-571-87157530,86-571-88025800
  • Emails:sales@dingyanchem.com
  • Main Products:95
  • Country:China (Mainland)
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