Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
colourless to light yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor. soluble in water and alcohol.It is used as an organic solvent for oils, fats, rubbers, in paint removers,and in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride and rayon.
Shake it for 3hours with three portions of KMnO4 solution (5g/L), twice for 6hours with mercury (to remove sulfide impurities) until no further darkening of the interface occurs, and finally with a solution of HgSO4 (2.5g/L) or cold, saturated HgCl2. Dry it with CaCl2, MgSO4, or CaH2 (with further drying by refluxing over P2O5), followed by fractional distillation in diffuse light. Alkali metals cannot be used as drying agents. It has also been purified by standing with bromine (0.5mL/L) for 3-4hours, shaking rapidly with KOH solution, then copper turnings (to remove unreacted bromine), and drying with CaCl2. CS2 is highly TOXIC and highly FLAMMABLE. Work in a good fumehood. Small quantities of CS2 have been purified (including removal of hydrocarbons) by mechanical agitation of a 45-50g sample with a solution of 130g of sodium sulfide in 150mL of H2O for 24hours at 35-40o. The aqueous sodium thiocarbonate solution is separated from unreacted CS2, then precipitated with 140g of copper sulfate in 350g of water, with cooling. After filtering off the copper thiocarbonate, it is decomposed by passing steam into it. The distillate is separated from H2O and distilled from P2O5. [Ruff & Golla Z Anorg Chem 138 17 1924, Beilstein 3 IV 395.]
In the manufacture of rayon, carbon tetrachloride, xanthogenates, soil disinfectants, electronic vacuum tubes. Solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubbers.
Suitable for industrial hygiene analysis
Ignition temperature dangerously low: 212F. Vapors may be ignited by contact with ordinary light bulb, when heated to decomposition, Carbon disulphide emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur. When heated to decomposition, emits highly toxic fumes of sulfur oxides and can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Avoid air, rust, halogens, metal azides, metals, oxidants; when exposed to heat or flame reacts violently with aluminum, chlorine, azides, hypochlorite, ethylamine diamine, ethylene imine, fluorine, metallic azides of lithium, potassium, cesium, rubidium and sodium, nitrogen oxides, potassium, zinc and (sulfuric acid plus permanganate). Decomposes on standing for a long time.
The material affects the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, eyes, kidneys, liver, and skin. It may be absorbed through the skin as a vapor or liquid, inhaled or ingested. The probable oral lethal dose for a human is between 0.5 and 5 g/kg or between 1 ounce and 1 pint (or 1 pound) for a 70 kg (150 lb.) person. In chronic exposures, the central nervous system is damaged and results in the disturbance of vision and sensory changes as the most common early symptoms. Lowest lethal dose for humans has been reported at 14 mg/kg or 0.98 grams for a 70 kg person. Alcoholics and those suffering from neuropsychic trouble are at special risk.
Carbon disulphide has an extremely low autoignition temperature (125°C). May ignite or even explode when heated. The vapor or liquid has been known to ignite on contact with steam pipes, particularly if rusted [Anon., J. Roy. Inst. Chem., 1956, 80, p.664]. Explosion hazard when exposed to flame, heat, sparks or friction. Mixtures with lithium, sodium, potassium or dinitrogen tetraoxide may detonate when shocked. Potentially explosive reaction with nitrogen oxide, chlorine, permanganic acid(strong oxidizing agents). Vapor ignites in contact with aluminum powder or fluorine. Reacts violently with azides, ethylamine ethylenediamine, ethylene imine. Emits highly toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur when heated to decomposition [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 663]. Sodium amide forms toxic and flammable H2S gas with CS2. (714)
Pure carbon disulphide is a colourless liquid with a pleasant odour similar to that of chloroform, while the impure carbon disulphide is a yellowish liquid with an unpleasant odour, like that of rotting radishes. Exposure to carbon disulphide occurs in industrial workplaces. Industries associated with coal gasification plants release more of carbon disulphide, carbonyl sulphide, and hydrogen sulphide. Carbon disulphide is used in large quantities as an industrial chemical for the production of viscose rayon fibres. In fact, the major source of environmental pollution both indoor and outdoor by carbon disulphide is caused by emission released into the air from viscose plants.