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Potassium chloride

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Name

Potassium chloride

EINECS 231-211-8
CAS No. 7447-40-7 Density 1.984 g/cm3
Solubility soluble in glycerol, alkalies, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether Melting Point 770 °C
Formula KCl Boiling Point 1420 °C
Molecular Weight 74.54 Flash Point 1500°C
Transport Information Appearance white crystalline solid
Safety 24/25-39-26-22-23-45-36/37/39-16 Risk Codes 36-34-11
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7447-40-7 (Potassium chloride) Hazard Symbols IrritantXi, CorrosiveC, FlammableF
Synonyms

Klotrix;Chlorvescent;Potassium monochloride;Potassium muriate;Acronitol;Dipotassium dichloride;Durules-K;Kaon Cl;Kaon Cl-10;Potassium Cl;

 

Potassium chloride Specification

Potassium chloride (KCl) is the chemical compound which is a white or colorless vitreous crystal. Potassium chloride is not in general strongly reactive. There will be a violent reaction with BrF3 and with a mixture of sulfuric acid potassium permanganate mixture. Meanwhile, it can react with concentrated sulfuric acid to generate fumes of hydrogen chloride. What's more, its IUPAC name is potassium chloride. Besides, it is white crystals or powder, which should be stored in ventilated, dry place at 2-8 °C.

Properties about Potassium chloride are: The chemical is stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions. In addition, it is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids. You must protect it from moisture since it is hygroscopic. Potassium chloride is toxic in excess. If ingestion of high doses can cause cardiac arrest and rapid death. Therefore the aforementioned use as the third and final drug delivered in the lethal injection process.

Preparation of Potassium chloride: Potassium chloride can be extracted from sylvinite. In addition, it is also extracted from salt water. Meanwhile, it can be manufactured by crystallization from solution, flotation or electrostatic separation from suitable minerals. Potassium chloride is a by-product of the making of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid. What's more, using carnolite as raw material, you can also gain Potassium chloride. Firstly, you should crush it and mixed with 75% H2O. After that let the mixture toegangens superheated cream. Finally, you can gain the substance via refrigeration.

Uses of Potassium chloride: Potassium chloride is used in photography and in buffer soln, electrode cells. In addition, it is also used as a fertilizer. It can be used as a salt substitute for food, but due to its weak, bitter, unsalty flavour, it is usually mixed with ordinary salt (sodium chloride) for this purpose to improve the taste. Since the growth of many plants is limited by their potassium intake, the majority of the potassium chloride produced is used for making fertilizer. As a chemical feedstock, it is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal. It is also used in medicine (including lethal injection), scientific applications, food processing, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt (sodium chloride). Potassium chloride was once used as a fire extinguishing agent, used in portable and wheeled fire extinguishers. Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium.

When you are using Potassium chloride please be cautious about it as the following: Potassium chloride may destroy living tissue on contact and may cause burns. In case of contact with eyes, you should rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Whenever you will contact it, please wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). You should tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs before using Potassium chloride, or if you have: kidney disease; heart disease or high blood pressure; a blockage in your stomach or intestines; or chronic diarrhea (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease).

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)Canonical SMILES: [Cl-].[K+]
(2)InChI: InChI=1S/ClH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
(3)InChIKey: WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Toxicity of Potassium chloride:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
frog LDLo subcutaneous 2120mg/kg (2120mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
guinea pig LDLo intraarterial 130mg/kg (130mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo intraperitoneal 900mg/kg (900mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 35, Pg. 1, 1929.
guinea pig LDLo intravenous 77mg/kg (77mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo oral 2500mg/kg (2500mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 35, Pg. 1, 1929.
guinea pig LDLo parenteral 40mg/kg (40mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 131, Pg. 171, 1928.
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 2550mg/kg (2550mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
infant LDLo oral 938mg/kg/2D (938mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 240, Pg. 1339, 1978.
man LDLo oral 20mg/kg (20mg/kg) CARDIAC: ARRHYTHMIAS (INCLUDING CHANGES IN CONDUCTION)

BLOOD: CHANGE IN CLOTTING FACTORS

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
Lancet. Vol. 2, Pg. 919, 1980.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 620mg/kg (620mg/kg)   Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 256, Pg. 1043, 1963.
mouse LD50 intravenous 117mg/kg (117mg/kg)   European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 8, Pg. 188, 1975.
mouse LD50 oral 1500mg/kg (1500mg/kg)   Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. Vol. 21, Pg. 257, 1990.
pigeon LDLo subcutaneous 2210mg/kg (2210mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 660mg/kg (660mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 3, Pg. 597, 1965.
rat LD50 intravenous 142mg/kg (142mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 14, Pg. 1128, 1964.
rat LD50 oral 2600mg/kg (2600mg/kg)   "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972Vol. -, Pg. 8, 1972.
women TDLo oral 60mg/kg/D (60mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

BLOOD: CHANGE IN CLOTTING FACTORS
Lancet. Vol. 2, Pg. 919, 1980.

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