Light yellow to yellow solid
 K. M. Chen, B. F. Ge, H. P. Ma, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Bai, Y, Wang (2005) Icariin, a flavonoid from the herb Epimedium enhances the osteogenic differentiation of rat primary bone marrow stromal cells, 60, 939-942
 Patent CN 1199647C “Application of icariin in preparation of medicine for preventing and treating sexual dysfunction”
 Patent CN 104739851 A “New application of icariin, or icariin derivatives or icariin salt”
Icariin is one of the major flavonoids of the herb Epimedium, which has long been used in Tranditional Chinese Medicine to treat bone fracture and prevent osteoporosis. Research has shown that icariin should be an effective component for the bone-strengthening activity of the herb Epimedium, and one of the possible mechanisms for this activity is to stimulate the proliferation and enhance the osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. Icariin is reported to prevent and treat sexual dysfunction related diseases and improve the use of vasoconstriction. Icariin is used to prepare angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor medicines, which can be used to treat hypertension-complicated coronary diseases.