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Benzonitrile

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Name

Benzonitrile

EINECS 202-855-7
CAS No. 100-47-0 Density 1.032 g/cm3
Solubility 10 g/L (100 °C) Melting Point -13 °C
Formula C7H5N Boiling Point 191.099 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 103.13 Flash Point 71.667 °C
Transport Information UN 2224 6.1/PG 2 Appearance colourless liquid
Safety 23 Risk Codes 21/22
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 100-47-0 (Benzonitrile) Hazard Symbols HarmfulXn
Synonyms

Benzene,cyano-;Benzenecarbonitrile;Benzenenitrile;Benzoic acid nitrile;Benzonitril;Cyanobenzene;NSC 8039;Phenyl cyanide;

 

Benzonitrile History

Benzonitrile(100-47-0) was discovered by Hermann Fehling in 1844. He heated ammonium benzoate until it decomposed, and one of the products was benzonitrile. He was able to determine the structure of the product from the already known analogue reaction of ammonium formate yielding hydrocyanic acid. He also coined the name benzonitrile which gave the name to all the group of nitriles.

Benzonitrile Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. Cyanide and its compounds are on the Community Right-To-Know List.

Benzonitrile Standards and Recommendations

DOT Classification:  6.1; Label: Poison

Benzonitrile Specification

1. Introduction of Benzonitrile
The Benzonitrile is an organic compound with the formula C7H5N. The IUPAC name of this chemical is benzonitrile. With the CAS registry number 100-47-0, it is also named as benzoic acid nitrile. The product's categories are Industrial/Fine Chemicals; Intermediates; Organics. Besides, it is colourless liquid, which should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated place.

2. Properties of Benzonitrile
(1)ACD/LogP: 1.58; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 1.584; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 1.584; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 9.413; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 9.413; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 173.222; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 173.222; (8)#H bond acceptors: 1; (9)Polar Surface Area: 23.79 Å2; (10)Index of Refraction: 1.539; (11)Molar Refractivity: 31.32 cm3; (12)Molar Volume: 99.952 cm3; (13)Polarizability: 12.416×10-24cm3; (14)Surface Tension: 41.066 dyne/cm; (15)Density: 1.032 g/cm3; (16)Flash Point: 71.667 °C; (17)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 42.73 kJ/mol; (18)Boiling Point: 191.099 °C at 760 mmHg; (19)Vapour Pressure: 0.524 mmHg at 25°C.

3. Structure Descriptors of Benzonitrile
(1)SMILES: c1ccc(cc1)C#N
(2)InChI: InChI=1/C7H5N/c8-6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5H
(3)InChIKey: JFDZBHWFFUWGJE-UHFFFAOYAY
(4)Std. InChI: InChI=1S/C7H5N/c8-6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5H
(5)Std. InChIKey: JFDZBHWFFUWGJE-UHFFFAOYSA-N

4. Toxicity of Benzonitrile

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LD50 oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 1700mg/kg (1700mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 5, Pg. 161, 1899.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 32(10), Pg. 25, 1988.
mouse LC50 inhalation 1800mg/m3 (1800mg/m3)   Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 21(6), Pg. 34, 1977.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 400mg/kg (400mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
mouse LD50 oral 971mg/kg (971mg/kg)   Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene. Vol. 39, Pg. 423, 1984.
pigeon LDLo subcutaneous 500mg/kg (500mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 1250mg/kg (1250mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
rabbit LD50 oral 800mg/kg (800mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR

BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
rabbit LD50 skin 1250mg/kg (1250mg/kg)   Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 17, Pg. 723, 1979.
rabbit LDLo subcutaneous 200mg/kg (200mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 5, Pg. 161, 1899.
rat LCLo inhalation 950ppm/8H (950ppm) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. Vol. TR-74-78, Pg. 1974,
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 740mg/kg (740mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: PTOSIS: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises. Vol. 48, Pg. 23, 1990.
rat LD50 skin 1200mg/kg (1200mg/kg)   Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. Vol. TR-74-78, Pg. 1974,
rat LDLo oral 720mg/kg (720mg/kg)   Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. Vol. TR-74-78, Pg. 1974,

5. Safety Information of Benzonitrile
Hazard Symbols:HarmfulXn
Risk Codes:
R21/22:Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
Safety Description:
S23:Do not breathe vapour.

6. Preparation of Benzonitrile
Benzonitrile can be prepared by benzaldehyde. This reaction will need reagent TMSA, catalyst ZnCl2 and solvent CHCl3. The reaction time is 4 hours at ambient temperature. The yield is about 2%.



7. Use of Benzonitrile
Benzonitrile can be used to produce 2,5-diphenyl-1H-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one at ambient temperature. It will need reagent HCl. The yield is about 35.5%.


The Benzonitrile is a useful solvent and a versatile precursor to many derivatives. It reacts with amines to afford N-substituted benzamides after hydrolysis. It is a precursor to Ph2C=NH (b.p. 151 °C, 8 mm Hg) via reaction with phenylmagnesium bromide followed by methanolysis. Benzonitrile can form coordination complexes with late transition metals that are both soluble in organic solvents and conveniently labile. The benzonitrile ligands are readily displaced by stronger ligands, making benzonitrile complexes useful synthetic intermediates.

8. Other details of Benzonitrile
When you are using Benzonitrile, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed. When you are using it, do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer).

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