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Formamide

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Formamide

EINECS 200-842-0
CAS No. 75-12-7 Density 0.978 g/cm3
Solubility miscible with water Melting Point 2-3 °C
Formula CH3NO Boiling Point 210.5 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 45.05 Flash Point 81.1 °C
Transport Information Appearance colorless liquid
Safety 53-45-36/37/39-26-23 Risk Codes 61-41-37/38
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 75-12-7 (Formamide) Hazard Symbols ToxicT
Synonyms

Carbamaldehyde;Formimidic acid;Methanamide;NSC 748;

 

Formamide Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program.

Formamide Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 20 ppm; STEL 30 ppm
ACGIH TLV: TWA 10 ppm (skin)

Formamide Specification

The IUPAC name of this chemical is Formamide. With the CAS registry number 75-12-7, it is also named as Amid kyseliny mravenci. The product's categories are FM - FZAnalytical Standards; Alphabetical Listings; E-FAlphabetic; NMR Reference Standards; NMR Stable Isotopes; Spectroscopy; Stable Isotopes. It is colorless liquid with a faint odor of ammonia, which is miscible with water, alcohol, ethylene glycol, acetone, acetic acid, glycerin and phenol, and almost insoluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, etc. Formamide will begin to partially decompose into carbon monoxide and ammonia at 180°C. When heated strongly, formamide decomposes to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and water vapor. Reacts with water very slowly at room temperature, but rate is accelerated by acids and bases at elevated temperatures. Additionally, this chemical should be sealed in the container and stored in the cool and dry place.

Physical properties about Formamide are: (1)ACD/LogP: -1.51; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -1.51; (4)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -1.51; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1; (6)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 3.59; (8)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 3.59; (9)#H bond acceptors: 2; (10)#H bond donors: 2; (11)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 0; (12)Index of Refraction: 1.369; (13)Molar Refractivity: 10.4 cm3; (14)Molar Volume: 46 cm3; (15)Polarizability: 4.12×10-24 cm3; (16)Surface Tension: 32.4 dyne/cm; (17)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 44.68 kJ/mol; (18)Vapour Pressure: 0.192 mmHg at 25°C; (19)Tautomer Count: 2; (20)Exact Mass: 45.021464; (21)MonoIsotopic Mass: 45.021464; (22)Topological Polar Surface Area: 43.1; (23)Heavy Atom Count: 3; (24)Complexity: 12.3.

Preparation of Formamide: It can be obtained by the aminolysis of methyl formate.
HCOOCH3 + NH3 → HCONH2 + CH3OH 
In the past, formic acid was reacted with ammonia to produce ammonium formate, which was turned into formamide by heating.

Uses of Formamide: It is used primarily for manufacturing sulfa drugs and synthesizing vitamins and as a softener for paper and fiber. It is also a constituent of cryoprotectant vitrification mixtures used for cryopreservation of tissues and organs. In addition, its pure form can used as a solvent. And it is also used as an RNA stabiliser in gel electrophoresis by deionizing RNA. Besides, Formamide can react with piperidine to get 1-formyl-piperidine. The yield is 87%.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is irritating to respiratory system and skin. It also can cause serious damage to the eyes and may cause harm to the unborn child. So people should not breathe vapour. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) 

People can use the following data to convert to the molecule structure. 
1. SMILES:O=CN
2. InChI:InChI=1/CH3NO/c2-1-3/h1H,(H2,2,3) 
3. InChIKey:ZHNUHDYFZUAESO-UHFFFAOYAQ

The following are the toxicity data which has been tested.

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
dog LDLo intravenous 1500mg/kg (1500mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 30mg/kg (30mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.
guinea pig LD50 intraperitoneal 1250mg/kg (1250mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: OTHER (DIRECT) PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 9, Pg. 163, 1967.
mammal (species unspecified) LD50 oral 3150mg/kg (3150mg/kg)   Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 39(4), Pg. 86, 1974.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 2450mg/kg (2450mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 230, Pg. 559, 1957.
mouse LD50 oral 3150mg/kg (3150mg/kg)   Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 11, Pg. 86, 1969.
rabbit LD50 skin 17gm/kg (17000mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0528421,
rat LC50 inhalation > 3900ppm/6H (3900ppm)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0528421,
rat LD skin > 13500mg/kg (13500mg/kg)   Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. Vol. 32, Pg. 223, 1980.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 5700mg/kg (5700mg/kg)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 26, Pg. 596, 1973.
rat LD50 oral 5577mg/kg (5577mg/kg) KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: INCONTINENCE

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: OTHER (DIRECT) PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 9, Pg. 163, 1967.
rat LD50 subcutaneous > 4gm/kg (4000mg/kg)   Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Pharmakologie und Experimentelle Pathologie. Vol. 257, Pg. 296, 1967.
rat LD50 unreported 3gm/kg (3000mg/kg)   Experientia. Vol. 29, Pg. 225, 1973.

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