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151-21-3 Usage


Sodium dodecyl sulfate, also known as SDS, is an anionic surfactant that is commonly used in various industries due to its excellent detergency, emulsification, and foaming properties. It is a white to pale yellow paste or liquid with a mild odor and is composed of white or cream-colored crystals, flakes, or powder. SDS is known for its ability to lower the surface tension of aqueous solutions, making it a versatile compound with a wide range of applications.


Used in Detergent and Textile Industries:
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is used as a detergent and textile auxiliary due to its strong cleaning and emulsifying capabilities. It is particularly effective in the textile industry as a wetting agent and detergent, helping to clean and process fabrics more efficiently.
Used in Food Industry:
As stipulated by GB 2760-96, SDS is used as a processing aid in the food industry. It serves as a foaming agent, emulsifying agent, and anionic surfactant in the production of cakes, drinks, proteins, fruits, fruit juice, and edible oil.
Used in Cosmetics and Personal Care Products:
SDS is used in the formulation of shampoo and other cosmetic products, as well as wool detergent and detergent for silky class fine fabrics. Its emulsifying and foaming properties make it an ideal ingredient for these products.
Used in Mining and Fire Extinguishing:
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is utilized as a mine fire extinguishing agent and a foaming agent for fire extinguishers, thanks to its ability to create stable foams that can effectively suppress fires.
Used in Medical Applications:
SDS is employed as an emulsifying and dispersing agent in the medical field, where it is used to stabilize and disperse various substances in pharmaceutical formulations.
Used in Analytical Chemistry:
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is used as a relatively low-level ion-pairing reagent in analytical chemistry. It is also used as an additive in capillary electrophoresis analysis, typically in molar solutions, and in other analytical techniques such as flow column analysis.
Used in Material Modification:
SDS is used as a raw material for modifying materials, taking advantage of its surfactant properties to enhance the characteristics of various substances.
Used as a Hydrophilic Tablet Lubricant:
In the pharmaceutical industry, sodium dodecyl sulfate is used as a hydrophilic tablet lubricant, improving the flow and processing of tablet formulations.
Used as an Anionic Detergent:
SDS is commonly used as an anionic detergent due to its strong cleaning properties and ability to lower the surface tension of aqueous solutions.
Used as a Wetting Agent and Detergent in the Textile Industry:
In addition to its use as a detergent and textile auxiliary, SDS is also used as a wetting agent and detergent in the textile industry, particularly for electrophoretic separation of proteins and lipids.
Used in Toothpaste Formulation:
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an ingredient in toothpaste, where it acts as a foaming agent, contributing to the cleaning and polishing effects of the product.

Anionic surfactants

Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an anionic surfactant, and is a typical representative of sulphate-based surfactant. It is abbreviated as SDS, and also known as AS, K12, coco alcohol sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and foaming agent. The commercial products are usually white to light yellow crystalline powder. It is non-toxic, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and ether, soluble in water, and has good anionic and nonionic complex compatibility. It has good emulsibility, foamability, and foaming, infiltrating, decontaminating and dispersing properties. It is abundant in foams and quickly biodegradable, and has solubility next only to fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sodium sulphate (abbreviated as AES). It is not sensitive to alkali and hard water, but its stability is inferior to general sulfonate under acidic conditions and is close to AES. It is not favorable to exceed 95 °C upon long-term heating, and its irritation is at the middle level among surfactants, with an irritation index of 3.3 for a 10% solution, which is higher than AES and lower than sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (abbreviated as LAS). Toxicity LD50 is 1300mg/kg. There is no evidence that this product is carcinogenic, but high doses may indeed irritate the skin. However, in general sanitary products the concentration is limited when used as a forming agent, and is in line with national standards. So there is no need to concern. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a major component of detergent. It is usually used in the DNA extraction process to separate DNA after protein denaturation. It is often misread as sodium dodecyl sulfonate. It is widely used as a foaming agent in toothpaste, soap, shower gel, shampoo, detergent and cosmetics. 95% of personal care products and household cleaning products contain sodium lauryl sulfate. The above information is edited by the lookchem of Jin Yinxue.


It can be safely used for food, but the content of sodium lauryl sulfate should not be less than 90% (FDA, §172.822, 2000). LD50 is 1288mg/kg (rat, oral).

Sodium dodecyl sulfonate

There is certain universality of confusion and misuse for them, both of which belong to the anionic surfactants and the English abbreviations are both SDS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (abbreviated as SDS) is also called sodium lauryl sulfate (abbreviated as SLS), belongs to sulfate salt and has a molecular weight of 288.38. It is a white or light yellow crystal, and is easily soluble in water. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (abbreviated as SDS) belongs to sulfonate, has a molecular weight of 272.38, and differs with the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate in that it lacks one oxygen atom and the carbon atom is directly connected to the sulfur atom. Please note the difference so as to avoid misuse.

Utilization limitation

(FDA, §172.822, 2000, mg/kg): dry protein 1000; frozen protein 125; liquid protein 125; marshmallow foaming agent used in an amount of 0.5% gelatin; as a surfactant for solid drinks acidified with fumaric acid and juice drinks acidified with fumaric acid, 25; as moisturizers for grease, 10 (amount of grease). According to the regulation of (FDA, §172.210, 2000), it can be used as a citrus fruit surface coating agent, and the amount is limited per GMP.

Chemical property

It is a white to pale yellow powder, has a slight special smell, and is easily soluble in water.

Production method

Sulphur trioxide method: the reaction apparatus is a vertical reactor. At 32 °C nitrogen gas is introduced into the reactor through the gas vents at a flow rate of 85.9 L·min-1. At 82.7 kPa lauryl alcohol is introduced at a flow rate of 58 g·min-1. The liquid sulfur trioxide is fed into flash evaporator at 124.1 kPa, the flash temperature is maintained at 100 °C, and sulfur trioxide flow rate is controlled to be 0.907 2 kg·h-1. Sulfated product is then rapidly quenched to 50 °C, injected into the aging device and left for 10 to 20 min, and finally injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with a base. The neutralizing temperature is controlled at 50 °C. The material is discharged when the pH value is adjusted to 7 to 8.5, to obtain a liquid product which is spray dried to give a solid product. Batch method: lauryl alcohol is charged into reaction kettle and pre-heated to 30 °C. Then chlorosulfonic acid 0.03 mol in excess than the theoretical amount is sprayed into the alcohol under high speed agitation. The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 to 35 °C. After the sulfation reaction, it is injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with 30% lye to a pH value of 7 to 8.5, and finally bleached with 0.4% (weight) hydrogen peroxide. It is spray dried to give a solid. It can also be formulated into solutions according to quality standard. Continuous method: the reaction apparatus is tubular reactor. Lauryl alcohol is initially saturated with hydrogen chloride. Lauryl alcohol at a flow rate of 334 g·min-1 and hydrogen chloride at a flow rate of 40.5 g·min-1 are fed into saturation chamber through gauge. Then the solution of lauryl alcohol with hydrogen chloride is fed into reactor at 21.4 °C to react with chlorosulfonic acid. After the reaction is subjected to gas-liquid separation, the sulfated product flows from the bottom of the separator into neutralization kettle. It is neutralized with 30% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C to give a liquid product, which is spray dried to give a solid product.

Production Methods

Sodium lauryl sulfate is prepared by sulfation of lauryl alcohol, followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate.

Air & Water Reactions

Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

DODECYL SULFATE is incompatible with strong oxidizers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is also incompatible with cationic materials and with acids with pH below 2.5. Salts, basic, such as DODECYL SULFATE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of dust causes sneezing and coughing. Ingestion of large amounts causes irritation of stomach. Dust irritates eyes and may cause burns on prolonged contact. Contact with skin causes some irritation; continued exposure to water solution causes drying out and cracking.

Fire Hazard

Flash point data for Sodium dodecyl sulfate are not available; however, Sodium dodecyl sulfate is probably combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Sodium lauryl sulfate is an anionic surfactant employed in a wide range of nonparenteral pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics.It is a detergent and wetting agent effective in both alkaline and acidic conditions. In recent years it has found application in analytical electrophoretic techniques: SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is one of the more widely used techniques for the analysis of proteins; and sodium lauryl sulfate has been used to enhance the selectivity of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC).

Contact allergens

This anionic detergent is widely used in cosmetics and industry. As a skin irritant agent, SLS can be used in several dermatological applications. It is also a good indicator of excited skin during patch testing.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Sodium dodecyl sulphate?(SDS) helps to quickly disrupt the biological membranes. It is usually used as one of the major constituent of several reagents, that are used to purify nucleic acids. SDS can block the activity of RNase and deoxyribonuclease (DNase).

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. A human skin irritant. An experimental eye and severe skin irritant. A mild allergen. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO, and Na2O. See also ESTERS and SULFATES.


Sodium lauryl sulfate is widely used in cosmetics and oral and topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is a moderately toxic material with acute toxic effects including irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, and stomach. Repeated, prolonged exposure to dilute solutions may cause drying and cracking of the skin; contact dermatitis may develop.(3) Prolonged inhalation of sodium lauryl sulfate will damage the lungs. Pulmonary sensitization is possible, resulting in hyperactive airway dysfunction and pulmonary allergy. Animal studies have shown intravenous administration to cause marked toxic effects to the lung, kidney, and liver. Mutagenic testing in bacterial systems has proved negative. Adverse reactions to sodium lauryl sulfate in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations mainly concern reports of irritation to the skin or eyes following topical application. Sodium lauryl sulfate should not be used in intravenous preparations for humans. The probable human lethal oral dose is 0.5–5.0 g/kg body-weight. LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.25 g/kg LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.12 g/kg LD50 (rat, oral): 1.29 g/kg LD50 (rat, IP): 0.21 g/kg LD50 (rat, IV): 0.12 g/kg


Sodium lauryl sulfate is stable under normal storage conditions. However, in solution, under extreme conditions, i.e. pH 2.5 or below, it undergoes hydrolysis to lauryl alcohol and sodium bisulfate. The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container away from strong oxidizing agents in a cool, dry place.



Active matter

92% min

Petroleum eth soluble substances

1.5% max

Inorganic salts (NaCl+Na 2 SO 4 )

5.5% max


5.0% max

pH value (1% aq. solution)


Whiteness (WG)

80 min

Heavy metal

20ppm max


3ppm max

Purification Methods

Purify this detergent by Soxhlet extraction with pet ether for 24hours, followed by dissolution in acetone/MeOH/H2O 90:5:5(v/v) and recrystallisation [Politi et al. J Phys Chem 89 2345 1985]. It has been purified by two recrystallisations from absolute EtOH, aqueous 95% EtOH, MeOH, isopropanol or a 1:1 mixture of EtOH/isopropanol to remove dodecanol, and dried under vacuum [Ramesh & Labes J Am Chem Soc 109 3228 1987]. SDS has also been purified by repeatedly foaming whereby a 0.15% aqueous solution is made to foam and the foam is discarded, then the H2O is removed in vacuo and the residue is diluted to the required concentrations [see Cockbain & McMullen Trans Faraday Soc 47 322 1951] or by liquid-liquid extraction [see Harrold J Colloid Sci 15 280 1960]. Dry it over silica gel. For DNA work it should be dissolved in excess MeOH passed through an activated charcoal column and evaporated until it crystallises out. It has also been purified by dissolving in hot 95% EtOH (14mL/g), filtering and cooling, then drying in a vacuum desiccator. Alternatively, it is crystallised from H2O, vacuum dried, washed with anhydrous Et2O and dried in vacuum again. These operations are repeated five times [Maritato J Phys Chem 89 1341 1985, Lennox and McClelland J Am Chem Soc 108 3771 1986, Dressik J Am Chem Soc 108 7567 1986]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1847.]


Sodium lauryl sulfate reacts with cationic surfactants, causing loss of activity even in concentrations too low to cause precipitation. Unlike soaps, it is compatible with dilute acids and calcium and magnesium ions. Sodium lauryl sulfate is incompatible with salts of polyvalent metal ions, such as aluminum, lead, tin or zinc, and precipitates with potassium salts. Solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate (pH 9.5–10.0) are mildly corrosive to mild steel, copper, brass, bronze, and aluminum.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; oral capsules, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 151-21-3 includes 6 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 3 digits, 1,5 and 1 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 2 and 1 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 151-21:
33 % 10 = 3
So 151-21-3 is a valid CAS Registry Number.

151-21-3 Well-known Company Product Price

  • Brand
  • (Code)Product description
  • CAS number
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A11183)  Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, 99% (dry wt.), water <1.5%   

  • 151-21-3

  • 25g

  • 409.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A11183)  Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, 99% (dry wt.), water <1.5%   

  • 151-21-3

  • 50g

  • 560.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A11183)  Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, 99% (dry wt.), water <1.5%   

  • 151-21-3

  • 100g

  • 694.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A11183)  Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, 99% (dry wt.), water <1.5%   

  • 151-21-3

  • 250g

  • 1491.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A11183)  Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate, 99% (dry wt.), water <1.5%   

  • 151-21-3

  • 500g

  • 2533.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (L5750)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  92.5-100.5% based on total alkyl sulfate content basis

  • 151-21-3

  • L5750-100G

  • 235.17CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (L5750)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  92.5-100.5% based on total alkyl sulfate content basis

  • 151-21-3

  • L5750-500G

  • 265.59CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (L5750)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  92.5-100.5% based on total alkyl sulfate content basis

  • 151-21-3

  • L5750-1KG

  • 340.47CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (L5750)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  92.5-100.5% based on total alkyl sulfate content basis

  • 151-21-3

  • L5750-5KG

  • 1,297.53CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (71726)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  for ion pair chromatography, ≥99.0%

  • 151-21-3

  • 71726-10G-F

  • 1,000.35CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (71726)  Sodiumdodecylsulfate  for ion pair chromatography, ≥99.0%

  • 151-21-3

  • 71726-50G-F

  • 3,884.40CNY

  • Detail
  • Sigma-Aldrich

  • (Y0000620)  Sodium laurilsulfate  European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

  • 151-21-3

  • Y0000620

  • 1,880.19CNY

  • Detail



According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 11, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 11, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name sodium dodecyl sulfate

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Sodium dodecyl sulfate

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:151-21-3 SDS

151-21-3Related news

Interactions of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (cas 151-21-3) with Gelatin: A Comparison09/29/2019

The interaction of SDS/SDBS in aqueous gelatin solutions is studied above the gelation temperature by viscosity and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. The steep rise observed in the relative viscosity can be due the structural transitions leading to micellar growth of higher order. Circular d...detailed

151-21-3Relevant articles and documents

A method for the production of sulfate or sulfonate esters


Paragraph 0036, (2015/03/31)

The present invention relates to method for the production of sulfate or sulfonate esters essentially comprising the steps of adding sulfuric acid or sulfonic acid to boron acid in a medium with or without solvent (121), stirring the prepared mixture 8122), removing the precipitated boric acid (123), removing the solvent in case the solvent is used (124), producing dialkyl sulfate esters, mono alkyl sulfate esters and sulfonate esters of alkali metal salts (125), and based on the acidolysis of boron esters obtained from alcohol and boric acid with sulfuric acid or sulfonic acid.

Compositions and Methods Incorporating Photocatalysts


, (2009/12/05)

The various embodiments provide a composition including an active material having functional groups capable of covalent attachment to a substrate in the presence of an acid or a base, a photocatalyst capable of generating an acid or a base upon exposure to light, and a vehicle. The compositions may also include surfactants, emulsifiers, oxidants, and other components. A method for treating a substrate is also disclosed. The method includes the steps of applying at least one active material having functional groups to the substrate, applying a photocatalyst to the substrate, and exposing the photocatalyst and the at least one active material to light for forming covalent attachments between the functional groups and constituent groups on the substrate. The compositions and methods described herein are useful in personal care product and consumer care product applications, for example.

Skin Care Cosmetic Cream/Scrub Product


, (2009/06/27)

A series of cosmetic scrubs and creams, some containing coffee, have the ability to moisturize, soften, scrub and revitalize body parts, create natural tanning qualities, and sooth itch from burns and bug bites.

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