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590-46-5 Usage


Betaine hydrochloride is a vitamin-like substance that serves as a source of hydrochloric acid, aiding in the production of stomach acid. It plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy gastrointestinal tract by protecting it from harmful bacteria and facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients.


Used in Pharmaceutical Industry:
Betaine hydrochloride is used as an antiarteriosclerotic, hypolipaemic, and hepatoprotectant for promoting cardiovascular health, managing lipid levels, and supporting liver function.
Used in Veterinary Industry:
It is utilized as an antiprotozoal and coccidiostat to prevent and treat infections caused by protozoa and coccidia in animals.
Used in Naturopathic Medicine:
Betaine hydrochloride is used as a gastric acidifier to address low stomach acid levels, which can interfere with digestion and absorption of nutrients. It is particularly recommended for individuals with allergies, asthma, and those taking nutritional supplements in tablet or capsule form, as it enhances the absorption of minerals and other nutrients.


Betaine hydrochloride may be used as a lipotropic. Lipotropics aid in preventing the accumulation of fat in the liver, and usually help in the detoxification of metabolic wastes and toxins. They may be used to help with weight loss. Betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria, a condition in which an abnormally low amount of hydrochloric acid is in the stomach. It has been used in preparations for the treatment of liver disorders, hypokalaemia (abnormally low levels of potassium in the blood), CO2 production in double contrast radiography, and high homocysteine. Betaine hydrochloride has also been used to treat tic douloreux (a condition which involves spasmodic pain along the course of a facial nerve), cystinuria (a hereditary defect that results in recurrent kidney stone formation), and vitiligo (a condition that is characterized by milky-white patches on otherwise normal skin).

Biological Functions

Betaine hydrochloride and pepsin are naturally occurring gastric-juice components that render nutrients available for absorption and biological acitivity. Specifically, Betaine hydrochloride is an acidic form of betaine, which promotes optimal gastric lumen acidity and pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of peptide bonds. Betaine HCl is an excellent source of hydrochloric acid, also known as stomach acid. Supplementing with betaine HCl can be very beneficial, as insufficient production of hydrochloric acid is fairly widespread and often overlooked. Certain situations, such as normal aging, can decrease the body’s natural production of HCl.

Flammability and Explosibility


Biochem/physiol Actions

Betaine hydrochloride can decrease hepatotoxicity, that is stimulated by ethanol.

Clinical Use

Betaine hydrochloride (pronounced beta-een) is the acid form of trimethyiglycine (TMG). It is available as an over-the-counter drug. The most common use of betaine hydrochloride is as digestive aid for people who suffer from low gastric acidity (hypochlorhydria), a common complaint in the elderly and a cause of chronic indigestion. Although such a practice is unwise. betaine hydrochloride can be of use in cases of overeating. Gourmands, in particular, suffer less discomfort after indulgences if they take betaine hydrochloride with their feasts. Betaine hydrochloride is not only a digestive aid, but it also confers all the benefits of TMG (see next). However, betaine hydrochloride should not be used by anyone with chronic indigestion or heartburn without first seeking medical evaluation of the problem to make sure that there is not a more serious underlying condition. such as stomach ulcers. Betaine hydrochloride should be taken only with meals, and then only after first eating a few bites of food. The usual dose of betaine hydrochloride for hypochlorhydria is 500 milligrams. which is equivalent to 1.1 cubic centimeter (about a quarter teaspoon) of pharmaceutical Dilute Hydrochloric acid.

Side effects

Side effects are seldom seen, but as of 2013 betaine hydrochloride had not been through rigorous safety studies. Its safety, especially for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease, is not known. In very high doses, betaine hydrochlorine has been associated with heartburn or burning of the stomach lining.

Drug interactions

People taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cortisone-like drugs, or other medications that could cause peptic ulcers should not take betaine hy- drochloride.

Purification Methods

Recrystallise the salt from EtOH. Its solubility at 25o is 65% in H2O, and 5% in EtOH. [Edsall J Am Chem Soc 66 1767 1943, Kuhn & Ruelius Chem Ber 83 420 1950, Beilstein 4 III 1127, IV 2369.]


People with a history of ulcers, heartburn, or other gastrointestinal symptoms should see a nutritionally oriented doctor before taking betaine hydrochloride, and no one should take more than 10 grains (650 mg) without a physician's recommendation. Large amounts of betaine hydrochloride can burn the lining of the stomach. If a burning sensation is experienced, betaine hydrochloride should be immediately discontinued.

Check Digit Verification of cas no

The CAS Registry Mumber 590-46-5 includes 6 digits separated into 3 groups by hyphens. The first part of the number,starting from the left, has 3 digits, 5,9 and 0 respectively; the second part has 2 digits, 4 and 6 respectively.
Calculate Digit Verification of CAS Registry Number 590-46:
75 % 10 = 5
So 590-46-5 is a valid CAS Registry Number.

590-46-5 Well-known Company Product Price

  • Brand
  • (Code)Product description
  • CAS number
  • Packaging
  • Price
  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A16122)  Betaine hydrochloride, 99%   

  • 590-46-5

  • 250g

  • 219.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A16122)  Betaine hydrochloride, 99%   

  • 590-46-5

  • 1000g

  • 791.0CNY

  • Detail
  • Alfa Aesar

  • (A16122)  Betaine hydrochloride, 99%   

  • 590-46-5

  • 5000g

  • 3444.0CNY

  • Detail
  • USP

  • (1065709)  Betainehydrochloride  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

  • 590-46-5

  • 1065709-200MG

  • 4,647.24CNY

  • Detail



According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017


1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name Betaine hydrochloride

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium chloride

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only.
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:590-46-5 SDS

590-46-5Relevant articles and documents

Betaine hydrochloride salt synthesis method


Paragraph 0008-0013, (2019/07/08)

Betaine hydrochloride synthetic method, are sequentially added to the reaction bottle benzenedimethanol acetic acid, catalyst, ethanol, then heating up 100 — 115 °C reflux, molecular sieve dehydration backflow place, 2 — 8 hours after the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution is washed with water 2 times, divided chloroethyl ethyl acetate by reduced pressure distillation, the chloropropyl acetic acid ethyl ester are added to a reaction in the bottle, add a certain amount of water, the beginning of the access trimethylamine gas, maintained in the 20 — 45 °C, 2 — 6 hours of reaction, the temperature of the hydrochloric acid is then added to the hydrolysis, distilling the water and ethanol, cooling 10 — 15 °C crystallization centrifugation to obtain the betaine hydrochloride. The present invention made from the chloroacetic acid and ethanol raw material synthetic a chloroethyl ethyl acetate, to obtain pure chloro ethyl acetate through and dimethylamine synthesizing betaine ethyl ester hydrochloride, in the presence of hydrochloride heating water out to ethanol, concentrated liquid cooling to separate out betaine hydrochloride, prepared by the method of the betaine hydrochloride purity 99% or more, the yield of 97% or more, and there will not be any inorganic salt solid waste.

Compound containing quaternary ammonium salt ions and peroxycarboxylic acid groups in structure as well as preparation method and application of compound


Paragraph 0118; 0119; 0120, (2018/11/22)

The invention provides a compound containing quaternary ammonium salt ions and peroxycarboxylic acid groups in structure and belongs to the field of organic compounds. The compound provided by the invention has the characteristics of quaternary ammonium salt and peroxides at the same time, can be continuously used, is small in corrosion, has the disinfection performance of an efficient disinfectorand can also be used as an ordinary quaternary ammonium salt disinfector after peroxy acid in the structure is disinfected and decomposed; and in presence of lipophilic alkyl groups on the quaternaryammonium salt groups, the ability of molecules passing through the bacterial cell walls is improved, so that the disinfector can act on the extrocytoplasmic surfaces and destroy the cell walls to reach the purpose of disinfection and can rapidly pass through the cell walls to enter the interiors of cells to destroy cytoplasm, so that the disinfection speed of the peroxides is greatly increased, and the effect of complete sterilization is achieved.

A dramatic effect of the ionic liquid structure in esterification reactions in protic ionic media

Chiappe, Cinzia,Rajamani, Sunita,D'Andrea, Felicia

, p. 137 - 143 (2013/02/25)

Bronsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) have been synthesized and investigated as catalysts in esterification and transesterification reactions: simple and non-corrosive salts characterized by aliphatic cations associated with an "acidic" anion (in particular, [HSO4]-) gave the higher yields. A quite good correlation between IL acidity (H 0) and catalytic ability was found although also the hydrophilic nature of the ionic medium probably affects the process efficiency.

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