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CHemwill -- Choline Chloride
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 1.0-1.0 / Metric Ton 1 Metric Ton 5 Metric Ton/Day Chemwill Asia Co., Ltd. Contact Supplier
Choline chloride Manufacturer/High quality/Best price/In stock
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 3.0-3.0 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 1-100 Metric Ton/Month Dayang Chem (Hangzhou) Co.,Ltd. Contact Supplier
HOT purity Various Specifications Choline chloride CAS:67-48-1
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 100.0-500.0 / Gram 1 Gram 99999 Gram/Year Hangzhou Dingyan Chem Co., Ltd Contact Supplier
High quality choline chloride supplier in China
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No Data 1 Kilogram 100 Metric Ton/Month Simagchem Corporation Contact Supplier
CAS: 67-48-1 Choline chloride Food grade low price
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choline chloride
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 1300.0-1300.0 / Gram 10000 Gram 10 Metric Ton/Month Hebei yanxi chemical co.,LTD. Contact Supplier
Factory price Choline chloride for hot sale/cas 67-48-1
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No Data 25 Kilogram 5000 Metric Ton/Month Hefei TNJ chemical industry co.,ltd Contact Supplier
Factory supply high quality USP Choline chloride Cas 67-48-1 with competitive price
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USD $ 12.0-15.0 / Kilogram 25 Kilogram 250 Metric Ton/Year Wuhan Fortuna Chemical Co.,Ltd Contact Supplier
70% Choline Chloride
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 0.68-0.75 / Kilogram 1 Kilogram 5000 Metric Ton/Year EAST CHEMSOURCES LIMITED Contact Supplier
Choline chloride CAS:67-48-1
Cas No: 67-48-1
USD $ 0.32-0.98 / Gram 1 Gram 1 Metric Ton/Day WUHAN MULEI NEW MATERIAL CO., LTD Contact Supplier

67-48-1 Usage

General Description

White crystals. Practically neutral aqueous solution.

Uses

choleretic, lipotropic, hepatoprotectant

Limited use

GMP limit (FDA§182.5252.2000);

Reactivity Profile

An acidic organic salt. Materials in this group are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.

Uses

It can be supplied to tissue culture media, animal feed additive and used in clinical anti-fatty liver agent.
It can be used for treating fatty liver and cirrhosis. It can also be used as the feed additive which is capable of stimulating ovaries for giving birth to more eggs and farrowing. It can also facilitate the weight gaining process of livestock, fish, etc.
Choline chloride is effective in the prevention and treatment of the fat deposition and tissue degeneration in the organs of livestock and poultry. It can also promote the absorption and synthesis of amino acids. Moreover, it can enhance physical fitness and disease resistance of livestock, promote their growth and development, and improve poultry laying rate. The usage amount is 1-2 g/kg.
As a kind of feed additive, choline chloride has the following physiological effects: it can prevent the accumulation of the fat in liver and the kidney and tissue degeneration; it can promote recombination of amino acids; it can improve the utilization efficiency of amino acids, especially the essential amino acid methionine in vivo. In Japan, 98% of the applied choline chloride is used as the feed additives of chickens, pigs, cattle and fish and other animal. Most of them have been processed into powder; the preparation process of 50% powder is that: first add an appropriate excipient of certain particle size into the mixer is prepared by previously adding an appropriate particle size of the excipient, and then add drop wise of aqueous solution of choline chloride, after mixing, drying to derive it. Some powder products are also blended with vitamins, minerals, and drugs. Choline chloride is the vitamin B-class drug which can be used for the treatment of hepatitis, liver function degradation, early cirrhosis, and pernicious anemia.

Fire Hazard

Choline chloride is relatively nonflammable.

Definition

ChEBI: A quaternary ammonium salt with choline cation and chloride anion.

Air & Water Reactions

Deliquescent. Very soluble in water.

Chemical Properties

It is white hygroscopic crystal and is odorless with fish stench. Its melting point of 240 ℃. Its 10% aqueous solution has a pH 5-6. However, it is unstable in alkaline solution. This product is easily soluble in water and ethanol but insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene and carbon disulfide. It has a low toxicity with LD50 (rat, oral) being 3400 mg/kg.

Chemical Properties

White crystalline powder

Purification Methods

Extremely deliquescent. Check purity by AgNO3 titration or by titration of OH-base after passage through an anion-exchange column. Crystallise it from absolute EtOH, or EtOH/Et2O, dry it under vacuum and store it in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or Mg(ClO4)2. [Beilstein 4 IV 1443.]

B vitamins

Choline is an indispensible fundamental component in humans and animal body, often referred to as B vitamins or vitamin B4, and is a necessary low-molecule organic compound for maintaining physiological function off animal body. It can be synthesized inside animal body but still often need to be supplied to dietary and is a kind of vitamin in maximal usage amount. Inside animal cells, it can be used to adjust the in vivo metabolism and conversion of fats, preventing the fat deposition and tissue degeneration of liver and kidney, and then promote the regeneration of amino acids, enhance utilization of amino acids as well as save some part of methionine.
Choline chloride is the most commonly used as well as most economical form of synthetic choline and is a water soluble vitamin, and is the component for constituting of acetylcholine, lecithin, and nerve phospholipids of biological tissue. Moreover, it can save methionine and is an important material required for livestock, poultry, and fish. Inside animal body, it can be used for adjusting in vivo metabolism and conversion of fats and can prevent the deposition in liver and related tissue degeneration. As a methyl donor, it can promote the re-formation of amino acids and improve the utilization of amino acids. It is mainly used as an additive for being mixing into the animal feed. During the exact usage process, in addition to prevent moisture deliquescence, you should also note that all kind of feeds usually take the addition of choline chloride as the last step. Because of its destruction effects on other vitamins, especially its rapid destruction on vitamin A, D, K in the presence of metal elements, multi-dimensional formulation should not include choline. Daily feed supplied with it should be used as soon as possible after the addition. Tests have showed that choline chloride is especially important for chicken poultry. Its synthetic amino acids and lecithin can be delivered to various locations inside chicken bodies, being able to prevent the fat deposition in the liver and kidney and accelerate the growth of chickens and increase egg production and hatchability.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.

Production method

(1) Continuous method for preparation of choline chloride solution: continuously send the trimethylamine hydrochloride and a certain amount of ethylene oxide separately through pump into the reactor; the reactants had a residence time at the reactor of 1-1.5h; the reaction was carried out under stirring and has its resulting product being continuously withdrawn so that the liquid level within the reactor remained stable. The withdrawn choline chloride extraction crude product entered into the stripper to obtain 60-80% choline chloride liquid product from the bottom.
(2) Trimethylamine hydrochloride was reacted with ethylene oxide, and then added with an organic acid for neutralization and further concentration to obtain the choline chloride (3) Chloro-ethanol was reacted with trimethylamine to generate choline chloride.
(3)Ethylene oxide method. It can be made from the reaction between ethylene oxide and trimethylamine.
Add the trimethylamine ethanol solution into the reactor, send through ethylene oxide at about 30 ℃ and stirring reaction of 4 hour and further obtain it through neutralization with hydrochloric acid (control PH at 6.5-7.0). The yield of the crude product can be as high as 98%. The crude product can further be subject to activated carbon decolorizing and vacuum concentration to obtain 70% aqueous solution. The aqueous solution was added with ground corn cobs, rice hull flour, wheat bran or diatomaceous earth and some other kinds of excipients and can give 50% of the powder.
(4) Chlorohydrin method. Use chlorohydrin to substitute ethylene oxide and hydrochloric acid; have it reacted with trimethylamine in the presence of a small amount of ethylene oxide or alkaline substance;
First add 100 parts of chlorohydrin into the reaction vessel, further add 130 parts of trimethylamine from the liquid surface, while supplying 1.7 parts of ethylene oxide to trigger the reaction. After the addition, stir at 32-38 ℃ for 4h with the yield being 84% (calculated from chlorohydrin). For example, if catalyzed with an alkaline substance (such as quaternary ammonium salts), the one-way conversion rate can reach over 97%. Trimethylamine methanol solution and chlorohydrin is subject to heating reaction, concentration under reduced pressure, and re-crystallization to generate it.

Toxicity

ADI does not make restrictive regulations (FAO/WHO, 2001).
GRAS (FDA, §182.5252, §182.8252, 2000);
LD50: 9000mg/kg (rat, oral).

Content Analysis

Accurately weigh sample of about 300 mg and put it into 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask; add 50 ml of glacial acetic acid and heated on a steam bath until complete dissolving. After cooling, add 10 ml of mercury acetic acid mercury test solution (TS-137) and 2 drops of gentian violet reagent; use the acetic acid solution of 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid for titration to green endpoint. At the same time carry out a blank test and make necessary calibration. Each Ml of 0.1mol/L perchloric acid is equivalent to 13.96 mg of choline chloride (C5 H14ClNO).
InChI:InChI=1/C5H14NO.2ClH/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7;;/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3;2*1H/q+1;;/p-1

67-48-1 Well-known Company Product Price

Brand (Code)Product description CAS number Packaging Price Detail
Sigma (C7017)  Cholinechloride  ≥99% 67-48-1 C7017-100G 10,389.60CNY Detail
Sigma (C7017)  Cholinechloride  ≥99% 67-48-1 C7017-25G 4,851.99CNY Detail
Sigma (C7017)  Cholinechloride  ≥99% 67-48-1 C7017-5G 1,215.63CNY Detail
Sigma (C7017)  Cholinechloride  ≥99% 67-48-1 C7017-10MG 211.77CNY Detail
Sigma (C1879)  Cholinechloride  ≥98% 67-48-1 C1879-5KG 3,871.53CNY Detail
Sigma (C1879)  Cholinechloride  ≥98% 67-48-1 C1879-1KG 1,129.05CNY Detail
Sigma (C1879)  Cholinechloride  ≥98% 67-48-1 C1879-500G 767.52CNY Detail
USP (1133547)  Cholinechloride  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 67-48-1 1154569-500MG 5,663.97CNY Detail
USP (1133547)  Cholinechloride  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 67-48-1 1133547-500MG 2,097.81CNY Detail
USP (1133547)  Cholinechloride  United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 67-48-1 1133547-200MG 4,662.45CNY Detail
Sigma-Aldrich (PHR1251)  Cholinechloride  pharmaceutical secondary standard; traceability to USP 67-48-1 PHR1251-500MG 732.19CNY Detail
Alfa Aesar (A15828)  Choline chloride, 98+%    67-48-1 2500g 882.0CNY Detail

67-48-1SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name choline chloride

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names CHOLINE (CL)

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Flavouring Agent: FLAVOURING_AGENT
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:67-48-1 SDS

67-48-1Synthetic route

oxirane
75-21-8

oxirane

trimethylamine hydrochloride
593-81-7

trimethylamine hydrochloride

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide at 24.9℃; Thermodynamic data; ΔrH1;100%
With sodium hydroxide at 24.9℃;100%
2-chloro-ethanol
107-07-3

2-chloro-ethanol

trimethylamine
75-50-3

trimethylamine

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol; acetonitrile at 70℃; for 14h; Inert atmosphere;98%
at 80℃;
With water
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H25Cl2N2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H25Cl2N2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

ethyl 3-amino-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

ethyl 3-amino-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 9h;A 88%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H26BrN2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H26BrN2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-bromo phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
330957-88-5

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-bromo phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 9h;A 84%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

ethyl 3-amino-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
299937-04-5

ethyl 3-amino-1-(3-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 10h;A 83%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-nitro phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
330957-87-4

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-nitro phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 10h;A 74%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C26H29N2O4(1+)*Cl(1-)

C26H29N2O4(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
119825-14-8

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 11h;A n/a
B 73%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H26ClN2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H26ClN2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
130944-14-8

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 10h;A n/a
B 70%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H26N3O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

ethyl 3-amino-1-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
405109-32-2

ethyl 3-amino-1-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 10h;A 70%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C26H26N3O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

C26H26N3O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

C23H18N2O3
405109-16-2

C23H18N2O3

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 11h;A 68%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H27N2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)
1277100-30-7

C25H27N2O3(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

2-amino-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-4H-naphtho<2,1-b>pyran
84186-26-5

2-amino-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-4H-naphtho<2,1-b>pyran

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 8h;A n/a
B 67%
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C27H31N2O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

C27H31N2O5(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

C24H23NO5
1277100-29-4

C24H23NO5

B

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 12h;A 66%
B n/a
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

C25H27N2O4(1+)*Cl(1-)

C25H27N2O4(1+)*Cl(1-)

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate
130944-15-9

ethyl 3-amino-1-(4-hydroxy phenyl)-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carboxylate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With diethylamine at 40℃; for 12h;A n/a
B 60%
methyl bromide
74-83-9

methyl bromide

2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethanol
108-01-0

2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethanol

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With boron fluoride ether; acetone
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

acetylcholine chloride
60-31-1

acetylcholine chloride

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
beim Umkrystallisieren;
(2-bromoethyl)trimethylammonium bromide
2758-06-7

(2-bromoethyl)trimethylammonium bromide

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With silver nitrate
ethanolamine
141-43-5

ethanolamine

methyl iodide
74-88-4

methyl iodide

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium hydroxide
Stage #1: ethanolamine; methyl iodide With potassium carbonate for 12h;
Stage #2: With silver(l) oxide In methanol for 0.25h;
trimethylamine hydrochloride
593-81-7

trimethylamine hydrochloride

2-chloro-ethanol
107-07-3

2-chloro-ethanol

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium hydroxide; trimethylamine at -12 - -10℃; Erhitzen auf 80-90grad;
acetylcholine chloride
60-31-1

acetylcholine chloride

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

acetic acid
64-19-7

acetic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With macrocyclic polyphenolate; water at 60℃; Rate constant; Equilibrium constant; Mechanism; pH 10.0; ionic strength 0.10 M; var. pH;
phosphorylcholine chloride
107-73-3

phosphorylcholine chloride

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water at 30℃; for 0.166667h; Rate constant; relative rate, different alkaline phosphotases;
benzoylcholine chloride
2964-09-2

benzoylcholine chloride

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

benzoic acid
65-85-0

benzoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium phosphate buffer at 25.2℃; Rate constant; Mechanism; Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7), pH 7.26, μ=0.3 (0.06 N NaCl), also Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase; other choline and thiocholine esters;
<2-(n-dodecylmethyl-tert-butylsiloxy)ethyl>trimethylammonium nitrate
81372-19-2

<2-(n-dodecylmethyl-tert-butylsiloxy)ethyl>trimethylammonium nitrate

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

n-dodecylmethyl-tert-butylsilanol
81372-22-7

n-dodecylmethyl-tert-butylsilanol

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium fluoride In water-d2 at 25℃; for 24h; stability/lability; var. solvents, reagents and reaction times;
hydrogenchloride
7647-01-0

hydrogenchloride

{2-[(2,3-bis-stearoyloxy-propoxy)-hydroxy-phosphoryloxy]-ethyl}-trimethyl-ammonium betaine
816-94-4, 4539-70-2, 66701-63-1, 816-93-3

{2-[(2,3-bis-stearoyloxy-propoxy)-hydroxy-phosphoryloxy]-ethyl}-trimethyl-ammonium betaine

A

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

B

α,β-distearoyl-glycerol-α'-phosphoric acid

α,β-distearoyl-glycerol-α'-phosphoric acid

calve's brain

calve's brain

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
bei der Autolyse;
egg yolk

egg yolk

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With ethanol; barytes Isolieren mit konz.Ueberchlorsaeure;
lecithins

lecithins

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With acid Hydrolysis.Lecithine aus Maiskeimen;
With alkali Hydrolysis.Lecithine aus Maiskeimen;
With acid Hydrolysis.Lecithine aus den Samen von Avena sativa;
lupinus albus L.

lupinus albus L.

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With alkali Hydrolysis.Lecithine den Samen von Lupinus albus L.;
phosphorus containing substance from bovine kidneys

phosphorus containing substance from bovine kidneys

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With barium dihydroxide; ethanol
rohoryzanin I

rohoryzanin I

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride Hydrolysis;
With sulfuric acid Hydrolysis;
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

urea
57-13-6

urea

urea/choline chloride eutectic salt

urea/choline chloride eutectic salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 70 - 80℃; for 0.333333h;100%
at 120℃; for 0.333333h; Neat (no solvent);
at 74℃;
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

urea
57-13-6

urea

(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium urea chloride

(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylazanium urea chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 70 - 80℃;100%
at 80℃; for 0.5h;
at 50℃; Inert atmosphere;
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

sodium docusate
577-11-7

sodium docusate

choline dioctylsulfosuccinate
1214261-62-7

choline dioctylsulfosuccinate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water; acetone at 20℃;100%
malonic acid
141-82-2

malonic acid

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

choline malonate

choline malonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 100℃;100%
at 20℃; for 24h;
at 50 - 120℃;
at 80℃;
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

sodium salicylate
54-21-7

sodium salicylate

choline salicylate
2016-36-6

choline salicylate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetone for 72h;100%
In ethanol at 20℃; for 1h;
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

oxalic acid
144-62-7

oxalic acid

oxaline

oxaline

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 100℃;100%
at 50 - 120℃;
at 80 - 100℃;
at 90℃; for 1h;
dodecyl isocyanate
4202-38-4

dodecyl isocyanate

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

N-dodecylcarbamylcholine chloride

N-dodecylcarbamylcholine chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile at 85℃; for 24h;100%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid
118072-93-8

1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid

2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate

2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium hydrogen (1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1-phosphonoethyl)phosphonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: choline chloride With anion-exchange column A-26 (OH) In methanol
Stage #2: 1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid In methanol; water for 1h;
100%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid
118072-93-8

1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid

bis(2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium) (1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diyl)bis(hydrogen phosphonate)

bis(2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium) (1-hydroxy-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethane-1,1-diyl)bis(hydrogen phosphonate)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: choline chloride With anion-exchange column A-26 (OH) In methanol
Stage #2: 1-hydroxy-2-(imidazol-1-yl)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid In methanol; water for 1h;
100%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one
108-29-2

5-methyl-dihydro-furan-2-one

cholinium 4-hydroxyvalerate
1211890-41-3

cholinium 4-hydroxyvalerate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water at 25℃; for 1h;99.2%
trimethyl phosphite
512-56-1

trimethyl phosphite

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium dimethyl phosphate
118978-98-6

(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium dimethyl phosphate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium chloride In toluene at 120℃; for 2h;99%
In methanol at 80℃; for 12h;
methanesulfonic acid
75-75-2

methanesulfonic acid

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methanesulfonate

N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methanesulfonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: choline chloride With sodium hydroxide In ethanol at 40℃; for 4h;
Stage #2: methanesulfonic acid In ethanol at 0 - 75℃; for 5.5h;
99%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

3-(triethoxypropyl) isocyanate
24801-88-5

3-(triethoxypropyl) isocyanate

N-{2-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)carbamoyloxyethyl}-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride

N-{2-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)carbamoyloxyethyl}-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dibutyltin dilaurate In acetonitrile at 80℃; for 14h; Inert atmosphere;98.7%
phosgene
75-44-5

phosgene

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl carbonochloridate chloride
92442-84-7

2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl carbonochloridate chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetone for 16h; Ambient temperature;98%
In tetrahydrofuran; toluene88%
In tetrahydrofuran; toluene for 40h;
With chloroform
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

potassium gibberellate

potassium gibberellate

choline gibberallate

choline gibberallate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In methanol at 25℃; for 0.5h;98%
gallium(III) oxide

gallium(III) oxide

phosphonic Acid
13598-36-2

phosphonic Acid

1,3-di(piperidin-4-yl)propane
16898-52-5

1,3-di(piperidin-4-yl)propane

choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

oxalic acid dihydrate
6153-56-6

oxalic acid dihydrate

(choline)0.9(4,4'-trimethylenedipiperidinium))0.05[Ga2(HPO3)2(oxalate)(OH)(H2O)]*0.5H2O

(choline)0.9(4,4'-trimethylenedipiperidinium))0.05[Ga2(HPO3)2(oxalate)(OH)(H2O)]*0.5H2O

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water High Pressure; mixt. of diamine, Ga2O3, H3PO3 and choline chloride/oxalic acid (1/1) inH2O was heated in autoclave at 160°C for 1 d;97%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

diclofenac sodium
15307-79-6

diclofenac sodium

(2-hydroxyethyl)tri-methylammonium [o-(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl]acetate
148439-51-4

(2-hydroxyethyl)tri-methylammonium [o-(2,6-dichloroanilino)phenyl]acetate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In ethanol at 20℃; for 1h;96%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

sodium heptanesulfonate
22767-50-6

sodium heptanesulfonate

choline heptanesulfonate

choline heptanesulfonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In chloroform at 20℃; for 5h;95%
choline chloride
67-48-1

choline chloride

N,N,N-trimethyl-2-(sulfooxy)ethanaminium chloride

N,N,N-trimethyl-2-(sulfooxy)ethanaminium chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With chlorosulfonic acid In acetonitrile at 20℃; for 4.25h;95%
With chlorosulfonic acid In acetonitrile at 5 - 27℃; for 4h;
With chlorosulfonic acid In hexane at 0 - 5℃; for 1.5h;
With chlorosulfonic acid In dichloromethane at 0 - 20℃; for 4h;
With chlorosulfonic acid In acetonitrile at 5℃;

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