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124-38-9 Usage

storage

Extremely stable and chemically nonreactive. Store in a tightly sealed cylinder. Avoid exposure to excessive heat.

Occurrence

Carbon dioxide is found throughout nature. Its concentration in the air is 0.036% by volume. It is the primary component of exhaled air of all animals. It also is the product of oxidation of all carbonaceous matter and an end prod?uct of complete combustion. It also is found dissolved in natural waters. It occurs in the earth’s crust and in volcanic eruptions. All plants depend on carbon dioxide and water for their survival, making their food by the process of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is found in abun?dance in the atmospheres of many other planets and their moons throughout the solar system. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, which traps the infrared radiation re?radiated back by the earth’s surface, causing global warming and, therefore, changing the climate. The CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over a 30- year period from 1960 to 1990 has increased significantly from about 320 to 356 ppm by volume, which is widely attributed to the growth of industrial and automobile CO2 emission during this period. Carbon dioxide has extensive commercial applications. Some important applications of this compound include carbonation of beverages; as a fire extinguishing agent; in the manufacture of carbonates; as dry ice (solid CO2) for refrigeration; as an aerosol propellant; as a shielding gas for welding; as an inert atmosphere in preparation and handling of flammable substances; in cloud seeding; in fumigation of rice; to produce harmless smoke on stage; as an antiseptic; and as a supercritical fluid to extract organic pollutants for their analyses.

Agricultural Uses

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a compound of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a carbon atom. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, soluble in water, ethanol and acetone, and is 15 times heavier than air. Carbon dioxide occurs in the earth's atmosphere at an average of 0.04% by volume. The volume keeps changing, as it is consumed by plants during photosynthesis and replenished during respiration and combustion of biomass. CO2 is a major source of carbon for plants. Carbon dioxide is readily prepared in a laboratory by the action of dilute acids on carbonates. It is also obtained as a by-product from the manufacture of lime and from fermentation processes. Chemically, CO2 is not reactive and does not support combustion. It gives carbonic acid on dissolution in water. Carbon dioxide is one of the key materials for urea production. Liquid carbon dioxide is produced at high pressures and has a small liquid range. Solid carbon dioxide (known as dry ice), produced by subjecting gaseous carbon dioxide to pressure and temperature, is used in refrigeration, carbonated drinks and fire extinguishers. It is also a constituent of medical treatment, as it promotes exhalation. The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by 12% in the last 100 years, mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of rain forests. The increased level of carbon dioxide is the main cause for an average increase of 0.5℃ in the mean global temperature through the greenhouse effect. Environmentalists urge that measures be taken to prevent any further increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the subsequent global warming and melting of ice caps. In calcareous soils, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the soil air influences its pH; it is 8.5 when free calcium carbonate in the soil is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide. An increase in carbon dioxide in the soil air decreases the pH to around 7.3. Applications of carbon dioxide include its use as (a) a refrigerant in either solid or liquid form, (b) an inert medium, (c) a chemical reactant, (d) a neutralizing agent for alkalis, (e) a pressurizing agent, and ( f ) an ingredient in the manufacture of aerated water.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Forms carbonic acid, a mild acid in water.

Chemical Properties

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas.

Uses

Carbon dioxide has several major uses: Solid carbon dioxide, dry ice, is used as a refrigerant. Another major use of carbon dioxide is in the soda industry. Soda is sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3? H2O). Other forms of soda include washing soda, which is sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3? 10H2O), and baking soda, which is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).Carbon dioxide is used as a gas in fire extinguishers, as an inflation gas for flotation devices, and as a propellant (for example in air guns). In recent years, the use of carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid in green chemistry applications has increased. A supercritical fluid is a fluid with a temperature and pressure above its critical point.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use in Europe as a food additive. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (aerosol formulation for nasal preparations; IM and IV injections). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

Health Hazard

Carbon dioxide is an asphyxiant. Exposureto about 9–10% concentration can causeunconsciousness in 5 minutes. Inhalation of3% CO2 can produce weak narcotic effects.Exposure to 2% concentration for severalhours can produce headache, increased bloodpressure, and deep respiration.

Definition

1. The solution of carbon dioxide in a liquid under pressure, as in carbonated soft drinks. 2. The addition of carbon dioxide to compounds, e.g. the insertion of carbon dioxide into Grignard reagents.

Chemical Properties

Carbon dioxide,CO2, also known as carbonic anhydride and carbonic acid gas, is a colorless,odorless gas that liquifies at -65 °C(-86 OF) and solidifies in dry ice at -78.2 °C(-107 OF). It is soluble in water,alcohol, and most alkaline solutions. In a relatively slow reaction,carbon dioxide hydrates in water to become carbonic acid and is corrosive. In petroleum production, the velocity of the carbon dioxide gas can increase the corrosion rate to very high levels,with the presence of salts becoming unimportant. Carbon dioxide is used in preparing carbonated beverages, fire extinguishers, dry ice refrigerants,and as a raw material in the production of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate using the Solvay procedure.

Purification Methods

Pass the gas over CuO wire at 800o to oxidise CO and other reducing impurities (such as H2), then over copper dispersed on Kieselguhr at 180o to remove oxygen. Drying it at -78o removes the water vapour. Final purification is by vacuum distillation at liquid nitrogen temperature to remove non-condensable gases [Anderson et al. J Chem Soc 3498 1962]. Sulfur dioxide contaminant can be removed at 450o using silver wool combined with a plug of platinised quartz wool. Halogens are removed by using Mg, Zn or Cu, heated to 450o. [Glemsner in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 647 1963.]

Chemical Properties

Carbon dioxide occurs naturally as approximately 0.03% v/v of the atmosphere. It is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas with a faint acid taste. Solid carbon dioxide, also known as dry ice, is usually encountered as white-colored pellets or blocks.

Waste Disposal

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Vent to atmosphere

Production Methods

Carbon dioxide accounts for 0.037% by volume of the atmosphere.Several methods can be used to produce large volumes of CO2. The combustion of coke or other carbonaceous substances produces results in CO2: C(coke) + O2 → CO2(g). In combustion processes, CO2 is concentrated by separating it from other gases using scrubbing and absorption techniques. Another source of CO2 involves the calcination (slow heating) of carbonates such as limestone, CaCO3: CaCO3(s)→ CaO + CO2(g).This process takes place in a lime kiln in the production of precipitated calcium carbonate at temperatures of from 500°C to 900°C. Carbon dioxide is also produced as a by-product in fermentation reactions to produce alcohols. An example is the fermentation of glucose, C6H12O6 to ethanol (C2H5OH): C6H12O6(aq)→ 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g). Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product in a number of syntheses, such as the Haber process, to produce ammonia.

Physiological effects

Carbon dioxide is nonnally present in the atmosphere at about 0.035 percent by volume. It is also a nonnal end-product of human and animal metabolism. The exhaled breath contains up to 5.6 percent carbon dioxide. The greatest physiological effect of carbon dioxide is to stimulate the respiratory center, thereby controlling the volume and rate of respiration. It is able to cause dilation and constriction of blood vessels and is a vital constituent of the acid-base mechanism that controls the pH of the blood. Carbon dioxide acts as a stimulant and a depressant on the central nervous system. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure have been noted at a concentration of 7.6 percent, and dyspnea (labored breathing), headache, dizziness, and sweating occur if exposure at that level is prolonged. At concentrations of 10 percent and above, unconsciousness can result in I minute or less. Impainnent in perfonnance has been noted during prolonged exposure to concentrations of 3 percent carbon dioxide even when the oxygen concentration was 21 percent.

Fire Hazard

Non-flammable gases. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.

General Description

An odorless, white solid. Can cause damaging frostbite. Noncombustible and nontoxic. Liquefies at -109°F. Can asphyxiate by displacement of air. Used as a refrigerant.

History

The discovery of carbon dioxide, credited to Joseph Black (1728–1799), played a critical role in supplanting the phlogiston theory and advancing the development of modern chemistry. Black, in his medical studies, was searching for a substance to dissolve kidney stones, but he switched his subject to a study of stomach acidity. Black was working with the carbonates magnesia alba (magnesium carbonate) and calcium carbonate (limestone) and observed that when magnesia alba was heated or reacted with acids, it produced a gas and a salt. Black, who published his work in 1756, called the gas “fixed air” and noted that it had properties similar to those described by Jan Baptista van Helmont (1577–1644) for spiritus sylvestrius. Spiritus sylvestrius was the gas produced during combustion processes, and van Helmont realized that this was the same gas produced during fermentation and when acids reacted with seashells.

Shipping

Carbon dioxide (UN1013, UN2187), Hazard Class: 2.2; Labels: 2.2-Nonflammable compressed gas. Dry ice (UN1845), Hazard class 9 is considered a “miscellaneous hazardous material” and does not require a label. The gas and refrigerated liquid fall in Hazard Class 2.2 and there is no Packing Group; solid, dry ice falls in Hazard Class 9. Solid, dry ice carries the symbol “AW.” The letter “A” restricts the application of requirements of this subchapter to materials offered or intended for transportation by aircraft, unless the material is a hazardous substance or a hazardous waste. The letter “W” restricts the application of requirements of this subchapter to materials offered or intended for transportation by vessel, unless the material is a hazardous substance or a hazardous waste. Cylindersmust be transported in a secure upright position, in a wellventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Preparation

Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product in many processes. It is pro duced as a by-product in the manufacture of lime from calcium carbonate: CaCO3 →CaO + CO2 CO2 also is derived from synthesis gas which is a mixture of CO, CO2, H2 and N2 from air obtained by steam reforming. Carbon dioxide also is obtained by combustion of natural gas: CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O It also is obtained as a by-product in the Haber-Bosch process for the man ufacture of ammonia. The method involves passing steam and air over hot coke. Carbon dioxide also is produced along with ethanol from fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast: C6H12O6→2CO2 + 2C2H5OH In the laboratory, CO2 may be produced by the reaction of any carbonate with a dilute mineral acid: CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Health Hazard

Vapors may cause dizziness or asphyxiation without warning. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. Contact with gas or liquefied gas may cause burns, severe injury and/or frostbite.

Hazard

Solid damaging to skin and tissue; keep away from mouth and eyes. Asphyxia.

Safety Profile

An asphpant. See discussion of simple asphyxiants under ARGON. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Contact of solid carbon dioxide snow with the skin can cause burns. Dusts of magnesium, zirconium, titanium, and some magnesium-aluminum alloys igmte and then explode in COa atmospheres. Dusts of aluminum, chromium, and manganese ignite and then explode when heated in CO2. Several bulk metals wlll burn in CO2. Reacts vigorously with (Al + Na2O2), Cs2O, Mg(C2H5)2, Li, (Mg + Na2O2), K, KHC, Na, Na2C2, NaK, Ti. CO2 fire extingushers can produce highly incendiary sparks of 5-1 5 mJ at 10-20 kV by electrostatic discharge. Incompatible with acrylaldehyde, aziridme, metal acetylides, sodium peroxide.

Agricultural Uses

Solid carbon dioxide is known as dry ice. It is produced by cooling gaseous carbon dioxide under pressure.Dry ice is used in refrigeration, carbonated drinks and fire extinguishers. It is also a constituent of medical gases, as it promotes exhalation.

Uses

Solid carbon dioxide is used quite extensively to refrigerate dairy products, meat products, frozen foods, and other perishable foods while in transit. It is also used as a cooling agent in many industrial processes, such as grinding heat-sensitive materials, rubber tumbling, cold-treating metals, shrink fitting of machinery parts, vacuum cold traps, and so on. Gaseous carbon dioxide is used to carbonate soft drinks, for pH control in water treatment, in chemical processing, as a food preservative, as an inert blanket in chemical and food processing and metal welding, as a growth stimulant for plant life, for hardening molds and cores in foundries, and in pneumatic devices. Liquid carbon dioxide is used as an expendable refrigerant for freezing and chilling food products; for low-temperature testing of aviation, missile, and electronic components; for stimulation of oil and gas wells; for rubber tumbling; and for controlling chemical reactions. Liquid carbon dioxide is also used as a fire extinguishing agent in portable and built-in fire extinguishing systems.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Carbon dioxide and other compressed gases such as nitrogen and nitrous oxide are used as propellants for topical pharmaceutical aerosols. They are also used in other aerosol products that work satisfactorily with the coarse aerosol spray that is produced with compressed gases, e.g. cosmetics, furniture polish, and window cleaners. The advantages of compressed gases as aerosol propellants are that they are less expensive; are of low toxicity; and are practically odorless and tasteless. Also, in comparison to liquefied gases, their pressures change relatively little with temperature. However, the disadvantages of compressed gases are that there is no reservoir of propellant in the aerosol and pressure consequently decreases as the product is used. This results in a change in spray characteristics. Additionally, if a product that contains a compressed gas as a propellant is actuated in an inverted position, the vapor phase, rather than the liquid phase, is discharged. Most of the propellant is contained in the vapor phase and therefore some of the propellant will be lost and the spray characteristics will be altered. Also, sprays produced using compressed gases are very wet. Valves, such as the vapor tap or double dip tube, are currently available and will overcome these problems. Carbon dioxide is also used to displace air from pharmaceutical products by sparging and hence to inhibit oxidation. As a food additive it is used to carbonate beverages and to preserve foods such as bread from spoilage by mold formation, the gas being injected into the space between the product and its packaging. Solid carbon dioxide is also widely used to refrigerate products temporarily, while liquid carbon dioxide, which can be handled at temperatures up to 318℃ under high pressure, is used as a solvent for flavors and fragrances, primarily in the perfumery and food manufacturing industries.

Production Methods

Carbon dioxide is obtained industrially in large quantities as a byproduct in the manufacture of lime; by the incineration of coke or other carbonaceous material; and by the fermentation of glucose by yeast. In the laboratory it may be prepared by dropping acid on a carbonate.

Incompatibilities

Carbon dioxide is generally compatible with most materials although it may react violently with various metal oxides or reducing metals such as aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and zirconium. Mixtures with sodium and potassium will explode if shocked.

Description

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas present throughout the atmosphere and is an essential compound for life on Earth. It is found on other planets in the solar system. Mars’s icecaps are primarily frozen carbon dioxide and Venus’s atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide.

Reactivity Profile

Contact of very cold liquid/solid carbon dioxide with water may result in vigorous or violent boiling of the product and extremely rapid vaporization due to the large temperature differences involved. If the water is hot, there is the possibility that a liquid "superheat" explosion may occur. Pressures may build to dangerous levels if liquid gas contacts water in a closed container. With water forms weak carbonic acid in nonhazardous reaction. Dusts of magnesium, lithium, potassium, sodium, zirconium, titanium, and some magnesium-aluminum alloys, and heated aluminum, chromium, and magnesium when suspended in carbon dioxide are ignitable and explosive. This is especially true in the presence of strong oxidizers, such as peroxides. The presence of carbon dioxide in solutions of aluminum hydride in ether can cause violent decomposition on warming the residue, [J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1948, 70, 877]. Dangers arising from the use of carbon dioxide in the fire prevention and extinguishing systems of confined volumes of air and flammable vapors are examined. The hazard associated with its use centers around the fact that large electrostatic discharges may be created that initiate explosion, [Quart. Saf. Summ., 1973, 44(1740, 10].

Uses

Carbon Dioxide is a gas obtained during fermentation of glucose (grain sugar) to ethyl alcohol. it is used in pressure-packed foods as a propellant or aerating agent and is also used in the carbonation of beverages. it is released as a result of the acid carbonate reaction of leavening agents in baked goods to produce an increase in volume. as a solid, it is termed dry ice and is used for freezing and chilling.

Physical properties

Colorless, odorless and tasteless gas; 1.53 times heavier than air; density 1.80 g/L at 25°C; can be liquefied under pressure; liquefies at -56.6°C at 5.2 atm; density of liquid CO2 at 0°C and 34 atm 0.914 g/mL; solidifies to white snow-like flakes known as dry ice, density 1.56 g/cm3 at -79°C; dry ice sub limes to CO2 gas at -78.5°C; critical temperature 31°C; critical pressure 72.79 atm, critical density 94 cm3/mol; moderately soluble in water, solubility 173 mL and 88mL CO2/100 mL water at 0°C and 20°C, respectively; solubility increases with pressure.

Uses

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the 18th most frequently produced chemical in the United States. It has numerous uses, including in refrigeration, in the manufacture of carbonated drinks (e.g., soda pop), in fire extinguishers, in providing an inert atmosphere (unreactive environment), and as a moderator for some types of nuclear reactors.

Definition

carbon dioxide: A colourlessodourless gas, CO2, soluble in water,ethanol, and acetone; d. 1.977 g dm–3(0°C); m.p. –56.6°C; b.p. –78.5°C. It occursin the atmosphere (0.04% by volume)but has a short residence timein this phase as it is both consumedby plants during photosynthesis andproduced by respiration and by combustion.It is readily prepared in thelaboratory by the action of diluteacids on metal carbonates or of heaton heavy-metal carbonates. Carbondioxide is a by-product from themanufacture of lime and from fermentationprocesses.Carbon dioxide has a small liquidrange and liquid carbon dioxide isproduced only at high pressures. Themolecule CO2 is linear with each oxygenmaking a double bond to the carbon.Chemically, it is unreactive andwill not support combustion. It dissolves in water to give carbonicacid.Large quantities of solid carbondioxide (dry ice) are used in processesrequiring large-scale refrigeration. Itis also used in fire extinguishers as adesirable alternative to water formost fires, and as a constituent ofmedical gases as it promotes exhalation.It is also used in carbonateddrinks.The level of carbon dioxide in theatmosphere has increased by some12% in the last 100 years, mainly becauseof extensive burning of fossilfuels and the destruction of largeareas of rain forest. This has beenpostulated as the main cause of theaverage increase of 0.5°C in globaltemperatures over the same period,through the greenhouse effect.Steps are now being taken to preventfurther increases in atmospheric CO2concentration and subsequent globalwarming.

Incompatibilities

The substance decomposes on heating above 2000C producing toxic carbon monoxide. Reacts violently with strong bases and alkali metals. Various metal dusts from chemically active metals, such as magnesium, zirconium, titanium, aluminum, chromium, and manganese are ignitable and explosive when suspended and heated in carbon dioxide.

Potential Exposure

Gaseous Carbon dioxide is used to carbonate beverages; as a weak acid in the textile, leather, and chemical industries; in water treatment; and in the manufacture of aspirin and white lead; for hardening molds in foundries; in food preservation, in purging tanks and pipe lines; as a fire extinguisher, in foams; and in welding. Because it is relatively inert, it is utilized as a pressure medium. It is also used as a propellant in aerosols; to promote plant growth in green houses; it is used medically as a respiratory stimulant; in the manufacture of carbonates; and to produce an inert atmosphere when an explosive or flammable hazard exists. The liquid is used in fire extinguishing equipment; in cylinders for inflating life rafts; in the manufacturing of dry ice, and as a refrigerant. Dry ice is used primarily as a refrigerant. Occupational exposure to carbon dioxide may also occur in any place where fermentation processes may deplete oxygen with the formation of carbon dioxide, e.g., in mines, silos, wells, vats, ships’ holds, etc.

Uses

In the carbonation of beverages; manufacture of carbonates; in fire prevention and extinction; for inerting flammable materials during manufacture, handling and transfer; as propellant in aerosols; as dry ice for refrigeration; to produce harmless smoke or fumes on stage; as rice fumigant; as antiseptic in bacteriology and in the frozen food industry. Supercritical or liquid CO2 used in extraction of caffeine and hops aroma; dry cleaning; metal degreasing; cleaning semiconductor chips; paint spraying; polymer modification. Environmentally benign alternative to potentially hazardous solvents in organic and polymer chemistry.

Definition

ChEBI: A one-carbon compound with formula CO2 in which the carbon is attached to each oxygen atom by a double bond. A colourless, odourless gas under normal conditions, it is produced during respiration by all animals, fungi and microorganism that depend directly or indirectly on living or decaying plants for food.

Safety

In formulations, carbon dioxide is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic material.
InChI:InChI=1/C2H2O5/c3-1(4)7-2(5)6/h(H,3,4)(H,5,6)

124-38-9 Well-known Company Product Price

Brand (Code)Product description CAS number Packaging Price Detail
Aldrich (295108)  Carbondioxide  ≥99.8% 124-38-9 295108-300G-EU 7,107.75CNY Detail
Aldrich (769002)  Carbondioxide  Messer® CANgas, 99.995% 124-38-9 769002-1L 947.70CNY Detail
Aldrich (422606)  Carbon-12Cdioxide  99.9 atom % 12C 124-38-9 422606-10L-EU 3,873.87CNY Detail
Aldrich (422606)  Carbon-12Cdioxide  99.9 atom % 12C 124-38-9 422606-25L 6,780.15CNY Detail

124-38-9SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEETS

According to Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) - Sixth revised edition

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: Aug 12, 2017

Revision Date: Aug 12, 2017

1.Identification

1.1 GHS Product identifier

Product name carbon dioxide

1.2 Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names Carbon dioxide

1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Food additives
Uses advised against no data available

1.4 Supplier's details

1.5 Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

More Details:124-38-9 SDS

124-38-9Synthetic route

methanol
67-56-1

methanol

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

C

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water In gas production of H2 by steam reforming of methanol react.; catalyst: CeO2/Cu/Al2O3; detn. by gas chromy.;
With water In gas production of H2 by steam reforming of methanol react.; catalyst: Cu/Al2O3; detn. by gas chromy.;
With catayst:Pt/ γ -Al2O3 In neat (no solvent) Kinetics; total pressure: 1.36 - 5.84 bar, N2 carrier gas, 423 K; detected by gas chromy.;
furfural
98-01-1

furfural

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

2-butenedioic acid
6915-18-0

2-butenedioic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 2.0CuO*P2O5; oxygen In water at 115℃; under 6000.6 Torr; Autoclave;A n/a
B 55%
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

A

methane
34557-54-5

methane

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

C

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

D

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With dihydrogen peroxide; 5% Pt/Al2O3 In water at 20 - 290℃; under 760.051 - 18617.8 Torr; for 0.00277778h; Conversion of starting material; Liquid phase;A n/a
B n/a
C n/a
D 85%
With dihydrogen peroxide; 6 wt % Pd-Ni/Al2O3-MnO2 In water at 50 - 220℃; under 760.051 - 17066.3 Torr; for 0.00416667h; Conversion of starting material; Liquid phase;A n/a
B n/a
C n/a
D 80%
With water at 300℃; Reagent/catalyst;
poly(4-hydroxystyrene)

poly(4-hydroxystyrene)

di-tert-butyl dicarbonate
24424-99-5

di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

A

poly(hydroxystyrene-co-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene)

poly(hydroxystyrene-co-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene)

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: poly(4-hydroxystyrene); di-tert-butyl dicarbonate; dmap In propyleneglycolmonomethyl ether acetate at 23℃; for 8h;
Stage #2: With Dowex Mac-3 In propyleneglycolmonomethyl ether acetate
A 36.6%
B n/a
1-butylene
106-98-9

1-butylene

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

buta-1,3-diene
106-99-0

buta-1,3-diene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen at 370℃; for 20h;A 5.1%
B 57.3%
With oxygen In water at 420℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 8h; Reagent/catalyst; Flow reactor;
ethanol
64-17-5

ethanol

A

methane
34557-54-5

methane

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

C

carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

D

acetaldehyde
75-07-0

acetaldehyde

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cerium-nickel based oxyhydride In water at 450℃; Temperature;
With Ni-doped silica; water at 500℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 0.5h; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst;
With rhodium supported on Cobalt-based ceria In water at 326.84 - 526.84℃;
With water at 420℃; for 1h;
With water; hydrogen at 300℃; under 760.051 Torr;
isopropyl alcohol
67-63-0

isopropyl alcohol

air

air

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cobalt(II,III) oxide In water at 90℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Activation energy; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Flow reactor;90%
formaldehyd
50-00-0

formaldehyd

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen at 240℃; under 760.051 Torr; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Flow reactor;100%
With platinum In sulfuric acid at 49.9℃; Mechanism; galvanostatic oxidation;
With dipotassium peroxodisulfate In water at 48.9℃; for 2h; Kinetics; Mechanism; Thermodynamic data; activation energy; -ΔS; ΔH; different peroxodisulfate, formaldehyde concentrations, reaction times and temperature;
carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen at 180℃; Flow reactor;100%
With H2O; selenium; platinum In water at 200℃; under 22501.8 Torr; for 20h;43%
With hydrogen; oxygen at 80℃; under 760.051 Torr; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;40%
phenol
108-95-2

phenol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With H2O In perchloric acid aq. HClO4; Electrochem. Process; oxidn. on boron-doped diamond anode; 1 M HClO4; at 25°C; anode potential 0-3.1 V; products monitored by HPLC;95%
With O40PW12(3-)*Co(2+)*H(1+); dihydrogen peroxide In water; glycerol at 79.84℃; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst; Autoclave; Green chemistry;48.1%
With dihydrogen peroxide; pyrographite In water at 105 - 120℃; for 0.5h; Product distribution; investigation of the ctaytic oxidation of phenol by hydrogen peroxide on an activated carbon surface;
formaldehyd
50-00-0

formaldehyd

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen at 240℃; under 760.051 Torr; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Flow reactor;100%
With platinum In sulfuric acid at 49.9℃; Mechanism; galvanostatic oxidation;
With dipotassium peroxodisulfate In water at 48.9℃; for 2h; Kinetics; Mechanism; Thermodynamic data; activation energy; -ΔS; ΔH; different peroxodisulfate, formaldehyde concentrations, reaction times and temperature;
formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Ag20Pd80 MIL-101 In water at 80℃; for 0.25h; Activation energy; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;100%
With [(HN(CH2CH2PiPr2)2)Fe(H)2(CO)] In toluene; tert-butyl alcohol at 90℃; for 6h; Catalytic behavior; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Solvent; Temperature;100%
With C19H38MnNO4P2 In 1,4-dioxane for 1h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst;36%
5-cyclopentylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione
3968-30-7

5-cyclopentylidene-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione

A

butatriene
2873-50-9

butatriene

B

ethene
74-85-1

ethene

C

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

D

cyclohexa-1,3-diene
1165952-91-9

cyclohexa-1,3-diene

E

acetone
67-64-1

acetone

F

benzene
71-43-2

benzene

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With variation of temp. at 550℃; Product distribution;A 4%
B 11.9%
C 100%
D 39.2%
E 101.9 %
F 3.3%
diethyl sulphide
352-93-2

diethyl sulphide

2-Oxobutyric acid
600-18-0

2-Oxobutyric acid

A

diethyl sulphide
70-29-1

diethyl sulphide

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

C

propionic acid
802294-64-0

propionic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen; methylene blue In pyridine; acetonitrile for 2h; Irradiation;A 100%
B n/a
C 52%
sarcosine
107-97-1

sarcosine

A

formaldehyd
50-00-0

formaldehyd

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

C

methylamine
74-89-5

methylamine

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride; sodium hydroxide; sodium perchlorate; chlorine at 24.9℃; Mechanism; Rate constant; Equilibrium constant; multistep reaction: 1.) water, 298 deg K, 2.) water, 298 deg K; reactions under var. conditions;A 100%
B n/a
C n/a
2-Oxobutyric acid
600-18-0

2-Oxobutyric acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile for 20h; Product distribution; Irradiation; decarboxylation, other solvents;100%
α-ketoglutaric acid
328-50-7

α-ketoglutaric acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile for 20h; Product distribution; Irradiation; decarboxylation, other solvents;100%
carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With oxygen at 180℃; Flow reactor;100%
With H2O; selenium; platinum In water at 200℃; under 22501.8 Torr; for 20h;43%
With hydrogen; oxygen at 80℃; under 760.051 Torr; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature;40%
2-oxo-propionic acid
127-17-3

2-oxo-propionic acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In acetonitrile for 20h; Product distribution; Mechanism; Quantum yield; Irradiation; other solvents, decarboxylation;100%
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: acetaldehyde; Irradiation (UV/VIS); 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of neat pyruvic acid or a mixt. of pyruvic acid and argon; monitoring by IR;
toluene
108-88-3

toluene

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With α-manganese oxide; oxygen at 290℃; Temperature; [1,2]-Wittig Rearrangement; Inert atmosphere;100%
With oxygen at 258℃; under 760.051 Torr; Kinetics; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;100%
With oxygen at 230 - 240℃; for 0.5h; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Inert atmosphere;99.9%
methane
34557-54-5

methane

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

H2O

H2O

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With yttrium barium cuprate at 400℃; under 760 Torr; Product distribution;A 100%
B n/a
With oxygen; La1.25Sr0.75NiO4 at 580℃; Kinetics; Mechanism; Thermodynamic data; other catalysts, variation of O2-pressure; activation energy;
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With water at 20℃; pH=4.5; Quantum yield; UV-irradiation; Inert atmosphere;A n/a
B 100%
With water at 350℃; Catalytic behavior; Temperature; Flow reactor;A n/a
B 14%
With catalyst: TiO2/2percent-wt Pt In neat (no solvent) byproducts: formaldehyde; Irradiation (UV/VIS); photolysis (500 W Xe-lamp 350 and 400 nm, 25°C); IR spectroscopy, gas chromy.;
carbon monoxide
201230-82-2

carbon monoxide

oxygen
80937-33-3

oxygen

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
palladium In neat (no solvent) oxidn. of CO on Pd catalyst at 120°C under atmospheric pressure;100%
zirconium(IV) oxide In neat (no solvent) oxidn. of CO on ZrO2 catalyst at 370°C under atmospheric pressure;100%
With catalyst: Pd-ZrO2 In neat (no solvent) oxidn. of CO on Pd catalyst deposited on ZrO2 at 152°C under atmospheric pressure;100%
formic acid
64-18-6

formic acid

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

hydrogen
1333-74-0

hydrogen

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With sodium formate at 20℃; Catalytic behavior; Green chemistry; chemoselective reaction;A n/a
B 100%
With [pentamethylcyclopentadienyl*Ir(2,2′-bpyO)(OH)][Na] In water at 80℃; for 1h; Reagent/catalyst;A n/a
B 99%
With (1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Ir[κ2(N,N’)-(S,S)-N-triflyl-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine] In 1,2-dimethoxyethane; water at 0℃; for 53h; Reagent/catalyst; Time; Temperature; Solvent;A n/a
B 85%
pyridine
110-86-1

pyridine

cis-(N,N-dimethyl-ethylenediamine)diiodoplatinum(II)
104034-36-8

cis-(N,N-dimethyl-ethylenediamine)diiodoplatinum(II)

thallous 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoate
75669-81-7

thallous 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoate

Hexafluorobenzene
392-56-3

Hexafluorobenzene

trans-platinum(I)2(pyridine)2
15227-44-8, 15227-45-9, 32162-03-1

trans-platinum(I)2(pyridine)2

c(N),d(N')-{N,N-dimethyl-N'-pentafluorophenylethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)}-b-iodo-a-pyridineplatinum(II)
127433-44-7, 117533-83-2

c(N),d(N')-{N,N-dimethyl-N'-pentafluorophenylethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)}-b-iodo-a-pyridineplatinum(II)

C

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In pyridine Heating under stirring (110-115°C, N2, 15 min).; Cooling, evapn. to dryness (vacuum), washed (light petroleum), dried, extn. with Me2CO, filtn. of TlI, evapn. to dryness, washed (cold EtOH), recrystn. (pyridine/water and acetone/ light petroleum), elem. anal.;A 5%
B 30%
C 100%
carbon oxide sulfide
463-58-1

carbon oxide sulfide

dihydrogen peroxide
7722-84-1

dihydrogen peroxide

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

sulfuric acid
7664-93-9

sulfuric acid

C

water
7732-18-5

water

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium sulfate; potassium hydrogensulfate; potassium peroxomonosulfate In water Kinetics; oxidation of OCS studied in round-bottom Pyrex bulbs, acid-water mixtures introduced into bulbs and degassed, bulb reactors filled with with a gas mixture slightly above 1 atm total pressure with a typical mixing ratio of OCS:Ar:He=40:60:700 Torr; gas chromy. and mass spectroscopy applied for determination of product content;A 100%
B n/a
C n/a
With sulfuric acid In water Kinetics; oxidation of OCS studied in round-bottom Pyrex bulbs, acid-water mixtures introduced into bulbs and degassed, bulb reactors filled with with a gas mixture slightly above 1 atm total pressure with a typical mixing ratio of OCS:Ar:He=40:60:700 Torr; gas chromy. and mass spectroscopy applied for determination of product content;A 100%
B n/a
C n/a
pyridine
110-86-1

pyridine

cis-(N,N-dimethyl-ethylenediamine)diiodoplatinum(II)
104034-36-8

cis-(N,N-dimethyl-ethylenediamine)diiodoplatinum(II)

thallous 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoate
75669-81-7

thallous 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoate

Pentafluorobenzene
363-72-4

Pentafluorobenzene

c(N),d(N')-{N,N-dimethyl-N'-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)}-b-iodo-a-pyridineplatinum(II)
127419-27-6, 117533-79-6

c(N),d(N')-{N,N-dimethyl-N'-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(1-)}-b-iodo-a-pyridineplatinum(II)

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In pyridine Heating under stirring (100-110°C, N2, 30 min).; Cooling, evapn. to dryness (vacuum), washed (light petroleum), dried, extn. with Me2CO, filtn. of TlI, evapn. to dryness, washed (cold EtOH), recrystn. (pyridine/water and ether/light petroleum), elem. anal.;A 31%
B 100%
tellurium(IV) oxide
7446-07-3

tellurium(IV) oxide

Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

tellurium(IV) fluoride
15192-26-4

tellurium(IV) fluoride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 160°C for 56 h;A n/a
B 100%
chromium(VI) oxide

chromium(VI) oxide

Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

chromyl fluoride
7788-96-7

chromyl fluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 185°C for 12 h;A 100%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

molybdenum(VI) oxide

molybdenum(VI) oxide

A

molydenum(VI) oxofluoride
14459-59-7

molydenum(VI) oxofluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 190°C for 31 h;A 100%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

tungsten(VI) oxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

A

(WOF4)4
13520-79-1

(WOF4)4

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 180°C for 48 h;A 100%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

vanadia

vanadia

A

oxovanadium(V) fluoride

oxovanadium(V) fluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 210°C for 34 h;A 100%
B n/a
niobium(V) oxide

niobium(V) oxide

Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

niobium pentafluoride
7783-68-8

niobium pentafluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Nb2O5:COF2 = 1:8; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 200°C for 36 h;A 100%
B n/a
tantalum(V) oxide

tantalum(V) oxide

Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

tantalum pentafluoride
7783-71-3

tantalum pentafluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 210°C for 46 h;A 100%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

uranium(VI) trioxide

uranium(VI) trioxide

A

uranyl fluoride
13536-84-0

uranyl fluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 180°C for 45 h or at 210°C for 27 h;A 100%
B n/a
selenium(IV) oxide
7446-08-4

selenium(IV) oxide

Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

selenyl fluoride
7783-43-9

selenyl fluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 200°C for 50 h;A 100%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

tin(IV) oxide

tin(IV) oxide

A

tin(IV) fluoride
7783-62-2

tin(IV) fluoride

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With cesium fluoride In neat (no solvent) SnO2:COF2 = 1:4; mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 220°C for 70 h in presence of a small amt. of CsF;A 100%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent) SnO2:COF2 = 1:4; mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 210°C for 80 h;A 50%
B n/a
Carbonyl fluoride
353-50-4

Carbonyl fluoride

A

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

B

silicon tetrafluoride
7783-61-1

silicon tetrafluoride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) slight excess over the stoich. amt. of COF2 required; reaction mixt. heated in a stainless steel or monel cylinder at 160°C for 36 h;A n/a
B 100%
ZrO(2+)*CO3(2-)*2ZrO2*6H2O=ZrOCO3*2ZrO2*6H2O

ZrO(2+)*CO3(2-)*2ZrO2*6H2O=ZrOCO3*2ZrO2*6H2O

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) calcinating;;100%
In neat (no solvent) calcinating;;100%
With water In water decomposition in boiling H2O with formation of CO2;;
pyridine
110-86-1

pyridine

dichloro(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)
14096-51-6

dichloro(ethylenediamine)platinum(II)

Pentafluorobenzene
363-72-4

Pentafluorobenzene

{N,N'-bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(2-)}dipyridineplatinum(II)
92181-58-3

{N,N'-bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)ethane-1,2-diaminato(2-)}dipyridineplatinum(II)

B

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With K2CO3 In pyridine N2-atmosphere; stirring (115°C, 1 h); evapn. (vac.), light petroleum addn., stirring (1 h), decanting, extg. (Me2CO), filtering, concg., light petroleum addn., crystn. on concg., re crystn. (Me2CO / light petroleum);A 44%
B 100%
With K2CO3 In pyridine N2-atmosphere; stirring (115 - 120°C, 1 h); evapn. (vac.), light petroleum addn., stirring (1 h), decanting, extg. (Me2CO), filtering, concg., light petroleum addn., crystn. on concg., re crystn. (Me2CO / light petroleum);A 21%
B 100%
With Tl2CO3 In pyridine N2-atmosphere; stirring (115 - 120°C, 1 h); evapn. (vac.), light petroleum addn., stirring (1 h), decanting, extg. (Me2CO), filtering, concg., light petroleum addn., crystn. on concg., re crystn. (Me2CO / light petroleum);A 24%
B 100%
With KHCO3 In pyridine N2-atmosphere; stirring (110 - 115°C, 1 h); evapn. (vac.), light petroleum addn., stirring (1 h), decanting, extg. (Me2CO), filtering, concg., light petroleum addn., crystn. on concg., re crystn. (Me2CO / light petroleum);A 30%
B 60%
With KHCO3 In pyridine N2-atmosphere; stirring (80°C, 1.5 h); evapn. (vac.), light petroleum addn., stirring (1 h), decanting, extg. (Me2CO), filtering, concg., light petroleum addn., crystn. on concg., re crystn. (Me2CO / light petroleum);A 7%
B 7%
bis(diethylamino)dimethylsilane
4669-59-4

bis(diethylamino)dimethylsilane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

bis(N,N-diethylcarbamoyloxy)dimethylsilane
6143-69-7

bis(N,N-diethylcarbamoyloxy)dimethylsilane

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃;100%
With diethylamine
1-bromo-2-isopropylbenzene
7073-94-1

1-bromo-2-isopropylbenzene

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

2-isopropylbenzoic acid
2438-04-2

2-isopropylbenzoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1-bromo-2-isopropylbenzene With n-butyllithium In tetrahydrofuran; hexane at -78℃; for 0.5h; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran; hexane at -78 - 20℃; for 1.33333h; Inert atmosphere;
100%
(i) Mg, (ii) /BRN= 1900390/; Multistep reaction;
Stage #1: 1-bromo-2-isopropylbenzene With magnesium
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In diethyl ether at 20℃; Cooling;
1-bromo-3-isopropylbenzene
5433-01-2

1-bromo-3-isopropylbenzene

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

3-isopropylbenzoic acid
5651-47-8

3-isopropylbenzoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1-bromo-3-isopropylbenzene With magnesium In tetrahydrofuran at 50 - 60℃;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran for 0.666667h;
Stage #3: With hydrogenchloride In tetrahydrofuran; water
100%
Stage #1: 1-bromo-3-isopropylbenzene With tert.-butyl lithium In diethyl ether; pentane at -78℃; for 0.166667h;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In diethyl ether; pentane
Stage #3: With hydrogenchloride In diethyl ether; water; pentane
92%
(i) Mg, Et2O, (ii) /BRN= 1900390/, (iii) aq. HCl; Multistep reaction;
Stage #1: 1-bromo-3-isopropylbenzene With magnesium In tetrahydrofuran at 60℃; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran for 0.666667h; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #3: With hydrogenchloride In tetrahydrofuran; water
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1-bromo-2-methylnaphtalene
2586-62-1

1-bromo-2-methylnaphtalene

2-methyl-1-naphthoic acid
1575-96-8

2-methyl-1-naphthoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: carbon dioxide; 1-bromo-2-methylnaphtalene With n-butyllithium In tetrahydrofuran at -78 - 20℃;
Stage #2: With hydrogenchloride In tetrahydrofuran; water
100%
(i) Li, Et2O, (ii) /BRN= 1900390/; Multistep reaction;
With lithium 1.) ether, 2 h, 2.) ether; Yield given. Multistep reaction;
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

methyl tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-2-carboxylate
22635-52-5

methyl tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-2-carboxylate

2-(methoxycarbonyl)adamantane-2-carboxylic acid
33101-12-1

2-(methoxycarbonyl)adamantane-2-carboxylic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: methyl tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-2-carboxylate With lithium diisopropyl amide In tetrahydrofuran at -70℃;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 24h; Further stages.;
100%
Stage #1: methyl tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-2-carboxylate With lithium diisopropyl amide In tetrahydrofuran for 1h; Cooling;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran at -78 - 20℃; for 24h;
89%
With n-butyllithium In tetrahydrofuran; hexane
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,1-dibromomethane
74-95-3

1,1-dibromomethane

dibromoacetic acid
631-64-1

dibromoacetic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1,2-dibromomethane With 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinylmagnesium chloride lithium chloride complex In tetrahydrofuran; toluene at -78℃; for 0.5h; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran; toluene at -78℃; for 3h;
100%
(i) nBuLi, CH2Cl2, THF, (ii) /BRN= 1900390/; Multistep reaction;
oxirane
75-21-8

oxirane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

[1,3]-dioxolan-2-one
96-49-1

[1,3]-dioxolan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 3-(2-hydroxylethyl)-1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazolium bromide grafted onto divinylbenzene polymer (PDVB-HEIMBr) at 140℃; under 15001.5 Torr; for 3h; Autoclave;100%
With bis[(1R,2R)-N,N'-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene)cyclohexane-1,2-diaminoaluminium(III)]oxide; tetrabutylammomium bromide at 26℃; under 2280.15 Torr; for 24h;100%
With choline chloride; zinc dibromide at 110℃; under 11251.1 Torr; for 1h; Autoclave; neat (no solvent);100%
trimethylene oxide
503-30-0

trimethylene oxide

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

trimethylene carbonate
2453-03-4

trimethylene carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bis(acetylacetonate)oxovanadium; tetrabutylammomium bromide In toluene at 60℃; under 26252.6 Torr; for 8h; Autoclave; Cooling with ice; chemoselective reaction;100%
tetraphenyl stibonium iodide at 100℃; under 36775.4 Torr; for 4h; Product distribution; Var. catalysts, solvents, time and temp.;96%
tetraphenyl stibonium iodide at 100℃; under 36775.4 Torr; for 4h; Var. catalysts, solvents, time and temp.;96%
2-methyl-1,2-epoxypropane
558-30-5

2-methyl-1,2-epoxypropane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one
4437-69-8

4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tetrabutylammomium bromide at 60℃; under 7500.75 Torr; for 72h; Time; Autoclave;100%
With 2-(bis(5-(tert-butyl)-2-hydroxybenzyl)amino)-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium iodide at 120℃; Reagent/catalyst; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique;99%
With tetrabutylammomium bromide In neat (no solvent) at 100℃; under 22502.3 Torr; for 8h;99%
ethyloxirane
106-88-7

ethyloxirane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
tetrabutylphosphonium iodide; tributyltin iodide at 60℃; for 5h; Product distribution; other time, other components of catalyst; effect on the yield;100%
With triphenylphosphine; sodium iodide; phenol at 120℃; under 30002.4 Torr; for 4h;99%
With 18-crown-6-potassium iodide; SalenAlEt at 25℃; under 4500.36 Torr; for 14h;99%
Allyl glycidyl ether
106-92-3

Allyl glycidyl ether

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

4-allyloxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one
826-29-9

4-allyloxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With lithium bromide In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 80℃; under 1500.15 Torr; for 12h;100%
With tetrabutylammomium bromide at 85℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 20h; Schlenk technique;100%
With potassium iodide In neat (no solvent) at 80℃; under 5250.53 Torr; for 4h; Catalytic behavior; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure; Autoclave;100%
styrene oxide
96-09-3

styrene oxide

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one
4427-92-3

4-Phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With tert.-butylhydroperoxide; tetrabutylammomium bromide; zinc dibromide; silica gel; gold In decane at 80℃; under 60004.8 Torr; for 4h;100%
With [aluminum((1R,2R)-N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-salicylidene)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)2O]; tetrabutylammomium bromide at 60℃; under 3750.38 Torr; for 24h; Mechanism; Reagent/catalyst; Temperature; Pressure; Autoclave;100%
With tetrabutylammomium bromide at 105℃; under 760.051 Torr; for 20h; Schlenk technique;100%
methanol
67-56-1

methanol

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

Methyl formate
107-31-3

Methyl formate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: carbon dioxide With phenylsilane In N,N-dimethyl acetamide at 50℃; under 22502.3 Torr; for 4h; pH=Ca. 1.2; Autoclave;
Stage #2: methanol In N,N-dimethyl acetamide Pressure; Temperature; Reagent/catalyst;
100%
With hydrogen; HCO2Ru3(CO)10 at 125℃; under 12928.7 Torr; for 24h; Product distribution; other catalysts, various reaction conditions;
With hydrogen; HCO2Ru3(CO)10 at 125℃; under 12928.7 Torr; for 24h; Yield given;
1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline
635-46-1

1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-1-carboxylic acid lithium salt
121565-21-7

1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-1-carboxylic acid lithium salt

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline With n-butyllithium In diethyl ether; hexane at -78 - 20℃; for 2h;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In diethyl ether; hexane at -78℃;
100%
Stage #1: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline With n-butyllithium In diethyl ether at -78 - 20℃; Cooling with acetone-dry ice; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In diethyl ether at -78℃; Cooling with ethanol-dry ice;
100%
Stage #1: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline With n-butyllithium In diethyl ether at -78℃; for 17h; Schlenk technique; Inert atmosphere;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In diethyl ether at -78 - 20℃; Schlenk technique;
100%
With n-butyllithium 1) THF, hexane, -78 deg C, 2) room temp.; Multistep reaction;
Stage #1: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline With n-butyllithium In hexane; tert-butyl methyl ether at -20 - 20℃; Schlenk technique;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran; diethyl ether; hexane; tert-butyl methyl ether at -78 - 20℃; Schlenk technique;
2-[2-(vinyloxy)ethoxymethyl]oxirane
16801-19-7

2-[2-(vinyloxy)ethoxymethyl]oxirane

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

3-(2-vinyloxyethoxy)-1,2-propylene carbonate
54107-24-3

3-(2-vinyloxyethoxy)-1,2-propylene carbonate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With potassium iodide In 1,4-dioxane at 140℃; for 3h; Product distribution; other temperatures, other reagents;100%
With triethylamine In 1,4-dioxane at 150℃; for 3h; rotating steel autoclave;92%
With triethylamine In 1,4-dioxane at 150℃; for 5h; Product distribution; other reaction times; other temperatures, without solvent.;99.9 % Turnov.
With potassium iodide In 1,4-dioxane at 140℃; for 3h; Yield given;
α-ketoglutaric acid
328-50-7

α-ketoglutaric acid

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
320-77-4

1-hydroxy-propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With methyl viologen radical cation; isocitrate dehydrogenase In water electrochemical reaction: glassy carbon cathode, -0.95 V vs SCE, tris buffer, NaHCO3;100%
With Paraquat; hydrogen cation; isocitrate dehydrogenase; cadmium(II) sulphide In various solvent(s) Product distribution; Rate constant; Ambient temperature; Irradiation; Michaelis-Menten constant;
With triethanolamine; Paraquat; hydrogen cation; isocitrate dehydrogenase; cadmium(II) sulphide Ambient temperature; Irradiation;
With tris(2,2’-bipyridine)ruthenium(II); 1.7E-4 M MV(2+); 8.3E-3 M DL-dithiohreitol; NADP+; sodium hydrogencarbonate; manganese(ll) chloride; isocitrate dehydrogenase In water Irradiation;
n-Butyl chloride
109-69-3

n-Butyl chloride

carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

n-butyl formate
592-84-7

n-butyl formate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen; sodium hydrogencarbonate; {W(CO)5Cl}(1-) In tetrahydrofuran at 150℃; under 80 - 85 Torr; for 24h;100%
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1-bromo-2-methoxy-4,5-dimethylbenzene
33500-88-8

1-bromo-2-methoxy-4,5-dimethylbenzene

2-methoxy-4,5-dimethylbenzoic acid
91061-36-8

2-methoxy-4,5-dimethylbenzoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1-bromo-2-methoxy-4,5-dimethylbenzene With n-butyllithium In tetrahydrofuran; hexane at -70℃; for 2h;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In hexane at -50℃; for 2.5h;
100%
With n-butyllithium 1.) THF, pentane, -100 deg C, 5 min, 2.) THF, pentane, -100 deg C, 25 min; Yield given. Multistep reaction;
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

1-bromo-4-methoxynaphthalene
5467-58-3

1-bromo-4-methoxynaphthalene

4-methoxy-1-naphthoic acid
13041-62-8

4-methoxy-1-naphthoic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 1-bromo-4-methoxynaphthalene With n-butyllithium In tetrahydrofuran; hexane at -78℃; for 0.333333h;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran; hexane at -78℃; for 0.333333h;
100%
With magnesium 2.) ether; Yield given. Multistep reaction;
carbon dioxide
124-38-9

carbon dioxide

4-bromo[2.2]paracyclophane
1908-61-8

4-bromo[2.2]paracyclophane

[2.2]paracyclophane-4-carboxylic acid
20586-49-6

[2.2]paracyclophane-4-carboxylic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
Stage #1: 4-bromo[2.2]paracyclophane With n-butyllithium In diethyl ether Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide Schlenk technique;
100%
Stage #1: 4-bromo[2.2]paracyclophane With iodine; magnesium In tetrahydrofuran for 4h; Heating;
Stage #2: carbon dioxide In tetrahydrofuran for 18h;
97%
With oxonium; magnesium96%

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