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Nitric acid

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Nitric acid

EINECS 231-714-2
CAS No. 7697-37-2 Density 1.623 g/cm3
Solubility H2O: >100 g/100 mL (20 °C) Melting Point - 42 °C
Formula HNO3 Boiling Point 83 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 63.01 . Flash Point 120.5°C
Transport Information UN 3264 8/PG 3 Appearance Colourless clear liquid
Safety 23-26-36-45 Risk Codes 8-35-34-20
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7697-37-2 (Nitric acid) Hazard Symbols CorrosiveC,OxidizingO
Synonyms

Aquafortis;Azotic acid;Fumic acid;Hydrogen nitrate;NSC 147791;NSC 15203;Nital;Nitric acid (HONO2);Nitryl hydroxide;

 

Nitric acid Consensus Reports

EPA Extremely Hazardous Substances List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory. EPA Genetic Toxicology Program. Community Right-To-Know List.

Nitric acid Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 2 ppm; STEL 4 ppm
ACGIH TLV: TWA 2 ppm; STEL 4 ppm
DFG MAK: 2 ppm (5.2 mg/m3)
NIOSH REL: (Nitric Acid) TWA 2 ppm
DOT Classification:  8; Label: Corrosive, Oxidizer, Poison

Nitric acid Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use OSHA: #ID-127 or NIOSH: Acids, Inorganic, 7903.

Nitric acid Specification

Nitric acid(CAS NO.7697-37-2) is a colorless, highly corrosive liquid and a very powerful oxidizing agent that in the highly pure state is not entirely stable and must be prepared from its azeotrope by distillation with concentrated sulfuric acid. Nitric acid gradually yellows because of decomposition to nitrogen dioxide. Solutions containing more than 80% nitric acid are called fuming nitric acids. It also can be called Acide nitrique; Acido nitrico; Acidum nitricum; Aqua fortis; Azotic acid; Azotowy kwas; Engraver's acid; Hydrogen nitrate; Kyselina dusicne; Nital; Nitric acid; Nitrous fumes; Nitryl hydroxide; Red fuming nitric acid; Salpetersaeure; Salpetersaure; Salpeterzuuroplossingen; UNII-411VRN1TV4.

Physical properties about Nitric acid are: (1)ACD/LogP: -0.773; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -0.77; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -0.77; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00 ; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)#H bond acceptors:4 ; (7)#H bond donors: 1; (8)Index of Refraction: 1.409; (9)Molar Refractivity: 9.606 cm3; (10)Molar Volume: 38.82 cm3; (11)Polarizability: 3.808 10-24cm3; (12)Surface Tension: 58.6520004272461 dyne/cm; (13)Density: 1.623 g/cm3 ; (14)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 37.722 kJ/mol; (15)Boiling Point: 83 °C at 760 mmHg; (16)Vapour Pressure: 49.8279991149902 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Nitric acid:
Nitric acid is made by reacting nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water.
3 NO2 + H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO
For many years it was made by the reaction of sulfuric acid and saltpeter, but this method is no longer used.
NaNO3 + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HNO3
It is now manufactured by combusting ammonia in air in the presence of a (platinum or other noble metal) catalyst, and the nitrogen oxides thus formed are oxidized further and absorbed in water to form nitric acid.
NH3 + 2O2 → HNO3 + H2O

Uses of Nitric acid: 
1. A solution of Nitric acid and alcohol, Nital, is used for etching of metals to reveal the microstructure.Nitric acid is also used in explosives, and is key to the manufacture of Nitroglycerin and RDX.
2. In a low concentration, it is often used to artificially age pine and maple. The color produced is a grey-gold very much like very old wax or oil finished wood (wood finishing).

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)InChI=1S/HNO3/c2-1(3)4/h(H,2,3,4);
(2)InChIKey=GRYLNZFGIOXLOG-UHFFFAOYSA-N;
(3)Smiles[N+](=O)(O)[O-]

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
human LDLo oral 430mg/kg (430mg/kg)   Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 22, Pg. 651, 1980.
man LDLo unreported 110mg/kg (110mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
rat LC50 inhalation 67ppm(NO2)/4H (67ppm)   AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 10, Pg. 418, 1954.

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