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Carbon monoxide

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Name

Carbon monoxide

EINECS 211-128-3
CAS No. 630-08-0 Density 0.97 (vs air)
Solubility Insoluble in water Melting Point ?205 °C(lit.)
Formula CO Boiling Point -192 C
Molecular Weight 28.01 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1016 Appearance Colourless gas
Safety Mildly toxic by inhalation in humans but has caused many fatalities. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human systemic effects by inhalation: changes in psychophysiological tests and methemoglobinemia-carboxyhemoglobinemia. Can cause asphyxiation by preventing hemoglobin from binding oxygen. After removal from exposure, the half-life of elimination from the blood is one hour. Chronic exposure effects can occur at lower concentrations. A common air contaminant. Acute cases of poisoning resulting from brief exposures to high concentrations seldom result in any permanent disability if recovery takes place. Chronic effects as the result of repeated exposure to lower concentrations have been described, particularly in the Scandinavian literature. Auditory disturbances and contraction of the visual fields have been demonstrated. Glycosuria does occur, and heart irregularities have been reported. Other workers have found that where the poisoning has been relatively long and severe, cerebral congestion and edema may occur, resulting in long-lasting mental or nervous damage. Repeated exposure to low concentration of the gas, up to 100 ppm in air, is generally believed to cause no signs of poisoning or permanent damage. Industrially, sequelae are rare, as exposure, though often severe, is usually brief. It is a common air contaminant.

A dangerous fire hazard when exposed to flame. Severe explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Violent or explosive reaction on contact with bromine trifluoride, bromine pentafluoride, chlorine dioxide, or peroxodisulfuryl difluoride. Mixture of liquid CO with liquid O2 is explosive. Reacts with sodium or potassium to form explosive products sensitive to shock, heat, or contact with water. Mixture with copper powder + copper(II) perchlorate + water forms an explosive complex. Mixture of liquid CO with liquid dinitrogen oxide is a rocket propellant combination. Ignites on warming with iodine heptafluoride. Ignites on contact with cesium oxide + water. Potentially explosive reaction with iron(III) oxide between 0° and 150°C. Exothermic reaction with CIF3, (Li + H2O), NF3, OF2, (K + O2), Ag2O, (Na + NH3). To fight fire, stop flow of gas.

Analytical Methods:

   

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Carbon Monoxide S340.

Risk Codes 61-12-23-48/23
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 630-08-0 (Carbon monoxide) Hazard Symbols Highly flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk. Flammable limits in air 12–75% by volume. Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 25 ppm. Note: Carbon monoxide has an affinity forblood hemoglobin over 200 times that of oxygen. A major air pollutant.
Synonyms

Carbonmonooxide; Carbon oxide (CO)

 

Carbon monoxide Chemical Properties


IUPAC Name: Carbon monoxide
Molecular Formula: CO
Molecular Weight: 28.01 g/mol
SMILES: [O+]#[C-]
InChI: InChI=1/CO/c1-2
EINECS: 211-128-3
Classification Code: Antimetabolites; Human Data; Mutation data; Noxae; Prophylaxis of graft dysfunction, in patients receiving allogenic kidney transplants; Reproductive Effect
Melting Point: -205 °C(lit.)
Boiling Point: -191.5 °C(lit.)
Vapor density of Carbon monoxide (CAS NO.630-08-0): 0.97 (vs air)

Carbon monoxide History

 Carbon monoxide (CAS NO.630-08-0) was used for executions by the Greek and Romans in Classical Antiquity, and was described by the Spanish doctor Arnaldus de Villa Nova in the 11th century.
In 1776 the French chemist de Lassone produced CO by heating zinc oxide with coke, but mistakenly concluded that the gaseous product was hydrogen as it burned with a blue flame.The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the English chemist William Cumberland Cruikshank in the year 1800.
Its toxic properties on dogs were thoroughly investigated by Claude Bernard around 1846.

Carbon monoxide Uses

 Carbon monoxide (CAS NO.630-08-0) is an important raw material in the production of methanol and other alcohols and of hydrocarbons, and it is a powerful poison. It is also used for making diisocyanate and ethyl acrylate.                        

Carbon monoxide Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
bird - wild LC50 inhalation 1334ppm (1334ppm)   Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 355, 1983.
dog LCLo inhalation 4000ppm/46M (4000ppm)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1360, 1935.
guinea pig LC50 inhalation 5718ppm/4H (5718ppm)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 17, Pg. 752, 1970.
human LCLo inhalation 4mg/m3/12H (4mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN
Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. Vol. (4), Pg. 26, 1999.
human LCLo inhalation 5000ppm/5M (5000ppm)   Tabulae Biologicae. Vol. 3, Pg. 231, 1933.
human TCLo inhalation 600mg/m3/10M (600mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 31(4), Pg. 34, 1987.
mammal (species unspecified) LCLo inhalation 5000ppm/5M (5000ppm)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 138, Pg. 65, 1928.
man LCLo inhalation 4000ppm/30M (4000ppm)   "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968Vol. -, Pg. 207, 1968.
man TCLo inhalation 650ppm/45M (650ppm) BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN

BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 34, Pg. 212, 1973.
mouse LC50 inhalation 2444ppm/4H (2444ppm)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 17, Pg. 752, 1970.
rabbit LCLo inhalation 4000ppm (4000ppm)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1360, 1935.
rat LC50 inhalation 1807ppm/4H (1807ppm)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 17, Pg. 752, 1970.

Carbon monoxide Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Carbon monoxide Safety Profile

Hazard Codes: HighlyF+,ToxicT
Risk Statements: 61-12-23-48/23 
R61:May cause harm to the unborn child. 
R12:Extremely flammable. 
R23 :Toxic by inhalation. 
R48:Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
Safety Statements: 53-45 
S53:Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use. 
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.)
RIDADR: UN 1016 2.3
WGK Germany: 1
RTECS of Carbon monoxide (CAS NO.630-08-0): FG3500000

Carbon monoxide Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 35 ppm; CL 200 ppm
ACGIH TLV: 25 ppm; BEI: 3% of hemoglobin indicating carboxyhemoglobin in blood at end of shift; 20 ppm CO in end-exhaled air at end of shift.
DFG MAK: 30 ppm (35 mg/m3); BAT: 5% carboxyhemoglobin in blood at end of shift
NIOSH REL: (Carbon Monoxide) TWA 35 ppm; CL 200 ppm
DOT Classification:  2.3; Label: Poison Gas, Flammable Gas

Carbon monoxide Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Carbon Monoxide S340.

Carbon monoxide Specification

  Carbon monoxide (CAS NO.630-08-0), its Synonyms are Carbon oxide (CO) ; Carbone (oxyde de) ; Carbonic oxide ; Carbonio (ossido di) ; Kohlenmonoxid ; Kohlenoxyd ; Oxyde de carbone . It is a colorless cryogenic liquid.

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