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Isopropanol

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Name

Isopropanol

EINECS 200-661-7
CAS No. 67-63-0 Density 0.791 g/cm3
Solubility miscible with water, ethanol, ether and chloroform Melting Point -89.5 °C
Formula C3H8O Boiling Point 72.993 °C at 760 mmHg
Molecular Weight 60.09 Flash Point 11.667 °C
Transport Information UN 1219 3/PG 2 Appearance colourless liquid
Safety 7-16-24/25-26-36/37 Risk Codes 11-36-67-40-10-36/38
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 67-63-0 (Isopropanol) Hazard Symbols IrritantXi,FlammableF,HarmfulXn
Synonyms

Isopropylalcohol (8CI);1-Methylethanol;1-Methylethyl alcohol;2-Hydroxypropane;2-Propyl alcohol;Alcojel;Alcosolve2;Autosept;Avantin;Avantine;Combi-Schutz;Dimethylcarbinol;Hartosol;IPS 1;IPS 1 (alcohol);Imsol A;Isohol;Isopropyl alcohol;

 

Isopropanol Specification

Isopropanol, also known as isopropyl alcohol, is a colorless, flammable liquid with with a characteristic alcohol / acetone-like odor. It has an isomer propanol. And it is miscible with water, ethanol, ether and chloroform. Because the alcohol is much less soluble in saline solutions than in salt-free water, add a salt such as sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, or any of several other inorganic salts can separate the isopropanol from aqueous solutions. 

Physical properties about Isopropanol are: (1)ACD/LogP: 0.173; (2)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): 0.17; (3)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): 0.17; (4)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00; (5)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00; (6)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 29.59; (7)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 29.59; (8)#H bond acceptors: 1; (9)#H bond donors: 1; (10)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 1; (11)Index of Refraction: 1.376; (12)Molar Refractivity: 17.441 cm3; (13)Molar Volume: 75.938 cm3; (14)Polarizability: 6.914 10-24cm3; (15)Surface Tension: 22.6280002593994 dyne/cm; (16)Density: 0.791 g/cm3; (17)Flash Point: 11.667 °C; (18)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 39.85 kJ/mol; (19)Boiling Point: 72.993 °C at 760 mmHg; (20)Vapour Pressure: 81.3320007324219 mmHg at 25°C

Preparation of Isopropanol: Isopropanol is produced by combining water and propene. This technology has two processes: direct hydration and indirect hydration via the sulfuric acid process.

1. Direct hydration: Use propylene as raw material, phosphoric acid diatomite as catalytic agent, then directly hydrate under the pressure to obtain isopropanol. Propylene and water are pressurized to 2.03 MPa, and preheat to 200 °C, respectively. After mixing, the mixture goes into the reactor to go through hydration reaction. The reactor is equipped with phosphoric acid diatomite catalyst with the reaction temperature of 95 °C and pressure of 2.03 MPa. The molar ratio of water and propylene is 0.7:1. The percent conversion of propylene is 5.2% and the selectivity is 99%. Then, after neutralization and heat transfer, the reaction gas is sent to high pressure chiller and high pressure separator. The isopropanol in gas phase is recoveried and unreacted gas is recycled by recyclingcompressor. The liquid phase is low concentration isopropanol (15% - 17%). After a series of treatment, the yield can achieve 99%. This method does not need sulfuric acid, so there is no corrosion problem. And the process is relatively simple.

2. Indirect hydration: Using propylene which contains more than 50% as raw material. At low pressure and temperature of 50 °C, use 75%-85% sulfuric acid to absorb in absorption tower. The absorption solution is diluted to 35%, which is hydrolysised to isopropanol in desorption tower by low-pressure steam. The percent conversion of propylene is above 90%. This method needs sulfuric acid, so the corrosion to equipment is large.

Uses of Isopropanol: Isopropanol is widely used as organic feedstock and solvent. As chemical feedstock, it can be used to produce acetone, hydrogen peroxide, methyl isobutyl ketone, diisobutyl ketone, isopropyl, isopropyl ether, isopropyl ether, isopropyl chloride, etc. In industry of fine chemicals, it is used to produce nitric acid, xanthalato isopropyl, medicine, pesticide, etc. As a solvent, isopropanol can be used to produce paints, inks, extraction agents, aerosol agents, etc. It is also used as antifreeze, detergent, dispersant of pigment production, fixative of printing and dyeing industry, anti-fog agent of glass and transparent plastic. What's more, isopropanol is used as reagent in the determination of barium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium, strontium, nitrite and cobalt. Isopropanol is often used for the cleaning of electrical parts, for hi-fi equipment and for computers and computer-related equipment such as computer monitor screens, laptops and keyboards.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: Isopropanol is irritating to eyes and skin. And its vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. You should wear suitable protective clothing and gloves to avoid contact with skin and eyes. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. When mixed with air or other oxidizers it can explode through deflagration.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
1. Smiles:C(C)(C)O
2. InChI:InChI=1/C3H8O/c1-3(2)4/h3-4H,1-2H3

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
cat LDLo intravenous 1963mg/kg (1963mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 172, 1955.
cat LDLo oral 6mL/kg (6mL/kg)   Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 26, Pg. 285, 1921.
dog LDLo intravenous 1024mg/kg (1024mg/kg)   Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 29, Pg. 561, 1944.
dog LDLo oral 1537mg/kg (1537mg/kg) GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 29, Pg. 561, 1944.
frog LDLo parenteral 20gm/kg (20000mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 50, Pg. 296, 1935.
guinea pig LD50 intraperitoneal 2560mg/kg (2560mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
hamster LD50 intraperitoneal 3444mg/kg (3444mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
human LDLo oral 3570mg/kg (3570mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 339, 1969.
human LDLo unreported 2mL/kg (2mL/kg)   Japanese Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 341, 1999.
human TDLo oral 223mg/kg (223mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"

CARDIAC: PULSE RATE

VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION
Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 12, Pg. 326, 1927.
infant TDLo oral 13gm/kg (13000mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)

BEHAVIORAL: IRRITABILITY

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 10, Pg. 542, 1992.
infant TDLo unreported 1375mg/kg (1375mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Pediatric Emergency Care. Vol. 9, Pg. 146, 1993.
mammal (species unspecified) LDLo subcutaneous 6gm/kg (6000mg/kg) PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES

BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Archiv fuer Toxikologie. Vol. 16, Pg. 84, 1956.
man LDLo oral 5272mg/kg (5272mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA
American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Vol. 38, Pg. 144, 1962.
man LDLo unreported 2770mg/kg (2770mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
man TDLo oral 14432mg/kg (14432mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: COMA

VASCULAR: BP LOWERING NOT CHARACTERIZED IN AUTONOMIC SECTION

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 277, Pg. 699, 1967.
mouse LCLo inhalation 12800ppm/3H (12800ppm)   Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974Vol. 17JUN1974,
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 4477mg/kg (4477mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
mouse LD50 intravenous 1509mg/kg (1509mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
mouse LD50 oral 3600mg/kg (3600mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 43(1), Pg. 8, 1978.
mouse LDLo subcutaneous 6gm/kg (6000mg/kg)   "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 172, 1955.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 667mg/kg (667mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 1184mg/kg (1184mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rabbit LD50 oral 6410mg/kg (6410mg/kg)   FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 48A, Pg. 114, 1970.
rabbit LD50 skin 12800mg/kg (12800mg/kg)   Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 100, 1974.
rat LC50 inhalation 16000ppm/8H (16000ppm)   Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 100, 1974.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 2735mg/kg (2735mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rat LD50 intravenous 1088mg/kg (1088mg/kg)   EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 61, Pg. 321, 1985.
rat LD50 oral 5045mg/kg (5045mg/kg) BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)

BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 43(1), Pg. 8, 1978.

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