ADI value is not specified (FAO/WHO, 2001).
LD5050: 45rag/kg (rat, oral).
Isopropanol is an important chemical products and raw materials. It is mainly applied to various fields including pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, fragrances, paint as well as being used as the dehydrating agent and cleaning agent in and electronics industry. It can also be used as the reagent for determination of barium, calcium, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium and strontium. It can also be used as the reference material of chromatographic analysis.
In the manufacturing industry of circuit board, it is used as a cleaning agent, and the production of PCB holes for conductivity. Many people find that it can not only clean the motherboard with excellent performance, but also get the best results. In addition, it is used for other electronic devices, including cleaning disc cartridge, floppy disk drives, magnetic tape, and the laser tip of the disc driver of CD or DVD player.
Isopropanol can also be used as a solvent for flexographic printing, offset printing, gravure printing, and as equipment cleaner. It is also often supplied to the ink. It is also an important solvent for dilution and extraction in laboratory. In addition, isopropanol is also used as a gasoline additive and fuel pipeline deicers.
In the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, isopropanol can be used for the manufacturing of scouring liquid, hand and body lotions, antiseptics and the pharmaceutical redness agents. It is also used in paints, thinners, paint, cleaning and polishing, and surface sterilization, disinfection hospitals, food processing plants.
In many industrial and consumer products, isopropanol is used as a low-cost solvent as well as a kind of extraction agents which can substitute the application of ethanol in many cases.
Isopropanol can also be used as the solvent of oil and gel as well as for the manufacture of fishmeal feed concentrate. Low-quality isopropanol can also be used in automotive fuels. As the raw material of production of acetone, the usage amount of isopropanol is reducing. There are several compounds which are synthesized from isopropanol, such as isopropyl ester, methyl isobutyl ketone, di-isopropylamine, di-isopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate, thymol and many kinds of esters. We can supply isopropanol of different quality depending on the end use it. The conventional quality of anhydrous isopropanol is more than 99%, while the special grade isopropanol content is higher than 99.8% (for flavors and drugs).
Vapors cause mild irritation of eyes and upper respiratory tract; high concentrations may be anesthetic. Liquid irritates eyes and may cause injury; harmless to skin; if ingested causes drunkenness and vomiting.
In antifreeze compositions; as solvent for gums, shellac, essential oils; in the extraction of alkaloids; in quick-drying oils; in quick-drying inks; in denaturing ethyl alcohol; in body rubs; hand lotions, after-shave lotions and similar cosmetics. Solvent for creosote, resins, gums; in manufacture of acetone, glycerol, isopropyl acetate. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
Isopropanol reacts with air or oxygen to form dangerously unstable peroxides. Contact with 2-butanone increases the rate of peroxide formation. An explosive reaction occurs when Isopropanol is heated with (aluminum isopropoxide + crotonaldehyde). Forms explosive mixtures with trinitromethane and hydrogen peroxide. Reacts with barium perchlorate to form a highly explosive compound. Ignites on contact with dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate, chromium trioxide and potassium-tert-butoxide. Vigorous reactions occur with (hydrogen + palladium), nitroform, oleum, COCl2, aluminum triisopropoxide and oxidizing agents. Reacts explosively with phosgene in the presence of iron salts. Incompatible with acids, acid anhydrides, halogens and aluminum . Isopropanol can react with PCl3, forming toxic HCl gas. (Logsdon, John E., Richard A. Loke., sopropyl Alcohol. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996.).
Volatile, colorless liquid with a sharp musty odor like rubbing alcohol. Flash point of 53°F. Vapors are heavier than air and mildly irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Density approximately 6.5 lb / gal. Used in making cosmetics, skin and hair preparations, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, lacquer formulations, dye solutions, antifreezes, soaps, window cleaners. Sold in 70% aqueous solution as rubbing alcohol.
FEMA (mg/kg): soft drinks: 25; sweets: 10 to 75; baked good: 75.
Suitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Isopropanol is also known as dimethylcarbinol and 2-propanol. It is the simplest secondary alcohol and is one of the isomers of n-propanol. It is a kind of flammable liquid which is colorless with strong smell being similar to the smell of the mixture of ethanol and acetone. It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform and most organic solvents and is miscible with water, alcohol, ether and can form azeotrope with water. Density (specific gravity): 0.7863g/cm3, melting point:-88.5 ℃, boiling point: 82.5 ℃, flash point: 11.7 ℃, ignition point: 460 ℃, refractive index: 1.3772. Its vapor can cause slight irritation on the eyes, nose and throat; it can be absorbed through the skin. Its vapor can form explosive mixture with air. Its explosion limit is 2.0% to 12% (by volume). It belongs to a moderate explosive hazardous material and flammable, low toxic substance. The toxicity of its vapors is twice as high as ethanol while oral administration causes the opposite toxicity.
Figure 1 is the structural formula of isopropanol.
In many cases, isopropanol can substitute ethanol as the solvent and is a good solvent and chemical raw materials which can be applied to not only painting, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics and other industries, but also the production of acetone, isopropyl ester, isopropylamine (the raw material for production of atrazine), di-isopropyl ether, isopropyl acetate and thymol crystal etc. It was the first product which is made from the petroleum raw material in the history of the development of petrochemicals.
In 1855, Frenchman M. Berthelot first reported the production of isopropanol through the hydration reaction between propylene and sulfuric acid, called indirect hydration. In 1919, the Americans C. Ellis had conducted industrial development on this. At the end of 1920, the American Standard Oil Company of New Jersey adopted the approach of Ellis Act and established the production equipment for putting into formal production. In 1951, the British company Imperial Chemical Industries began to produce isopropanol with the direct hydration method from propylene. Since then, many countries have used this method and made related improvements.
Indirect hydration reaction: propylene is first reacted with sulfuric acid to obtain isopropyl hydrogen sulfate, which generates isopropanol after hydrolysis, and the reaction of the formula:
CH3CH = CH2 + H2SO4 → (CH3) 2CHOSO3H
(CH3) 2CHOSO3H + H2O─ → (CH3) 2CHOH + H2SO4
the concentration of the applied sulfuric acid is generally greater than 60% (by mass), and the reaction is conducted at 2~2.8MPa and 60~65 ° C; The hydrolysis reaction happens at slight increased pressure and at below 30 ° C.
Direct hydration: propylene directly has hydration reaction with water in the presence of a catalyst upon heating and increased pressure to generate isopropanol with a selectivity of 96%. Reaction is: CH3CH = CH2 + H2O → (CH3) 2CHOH; the used catalyst includes tungsten compound, phosphate and ion exchange resin; the commonly used catalyst is phosphoric acid catalyst with carrier (see solid acid catalyst) with conditions of 2~6MPa, 240~260 ° C. Compared with the indirect method, this method does not have issue regarding to sulfuric acid corrosion and dilute acid concentration and therefore, it dominant in industrial production.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
Isopropyl alcohol is prepared commercially by dissolution of propene in H2SO4, followed by hydrolysis of the sulfate ester. Major impurities are water, lower alcohols and oxidation products such as aldehydes and ketones. Purification of isopropanol follows substantially the same procedure as for n-propyl alcohol. Isopropanol forms a constant-boiling mixture, b 80.3o, with water. Most of the water can be removed from this 91% isopropanol by refluxing with CaO (200g/L) for several hours, then distilling. The distillate can be dried further with CaH2, magnesium ribbon, BaO, CaSO4, calcium, anhydrous CuSO4 or Linde type 5A molecular sieves. Distillation from sulfanilic acid removes ammonia and other basic impurities. Peroxides [indicated by liberation of iodine from weakly acid (HCl) solutions of 2% KI] can be removed by refluxing with solid stannous chloride or with NaBH4 then the alcohol is fractionally distilled. To obtain isopropanol containing only 0.002M of water, sodium (8g/L) is dissolved in material dried by distillation from CaSO4. Isopropyl benzoate (35mL) is then added and, after refluxing for 3hours, the alcohol is distilled through a 50-cm Vigreux column (p 11). [Hine & Tanabe J Am Chem Soc 80 3002 1958.] Other purification steps for isopropanol include refluxing with solid aluminium isopropoxide, refluxing with NaBH4 for 24hours, and removing acetone by treatment with, and distillation from, 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Peroxides re-form in isopropanol if it is kept for several days in contact with air. [Beilstein 1 IV 1461.]
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Water soluble.
European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) said that the intermediate demand in Europe in 2001 accounted for 32% of the total isopropanol consumption, with 14% isopropanol being used as anti-icing agent, 13% being used in paints and resins, 9% being used in drugs, and 4% and 3% being used as food for inks and adhesives, respectively.
At present, China mainly applied isopropanol as the solvent in inks and pharmaceutical industries with the demand accounting for about 50% of total demand. However, due to competition of ethanol, it is predicted that the future trends of the growth rate in this field will be slowed down; The demand for different areas of organic intermediates in isopropanol accounts for about 25% of total demand. The demand from various kinds of other additives and isopropanol esters also accounts for 25% of the total demand. The application of isopropanol in the cleaning agent of the electronics industry has become one of the fastest growing areas in current growth of the global isopropanol demand. China has become the world's leading production base of electronic and electrical appliances. Owing to this field of application has just started in China, it has a huge development potential as well as broad market prospects.
colourless liquid with slight alcohol odour
When compared to ethanol, 50% less is required for nucleic acid precipitation, thus minimizing the total volume to be centrifuged for DNA or RNA recovery.
ChEBI: A secondary alcohol that is propane in which one of the hydrogens attached to the central carbon is substituted by a hydroxy group.