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Tungsten

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Name

Tungsten

EINECS 231-143-9
CAS No. 7440-33-7 Density 19.3
PSA 0.00000 LogP 0.00000
Solubility insoluble in water Melting Point 3410 °C(lit.)
Formula W Boiling Point 5660 ºC
Molecular Weight 183.85 Flash Point -23°C
Transport Information Appearance grey metal chunks or grey powder
Safety 6-26-36-62-61-36/37 Risk Codes 11-36/38-67-65-62-51/53-48/20-38
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 7440-33-7 (Tungsten) Hazard Symbols FlammableF,HarmfulXn,DangerousN,IrritantXi
Synonyms

5N-W;AW3105;B 10 (metal);BIO;BIO (metal);C 50H;D 100 (metal);D100W;D 20 (metal);FW 1-150;GE-U 10-4795;Osram M-37;PF 17W;RST-U;SG50W;Tungsten element;VA (tungsten);Ventron 00620;W 3KD;W 3N8;WL;WL100;WT;Wolfram;

 

Tungsten Synthetic route

sodium tungstate

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen byproducts: NaOH, H2O; redn. at 1100°C;100%
With hydrogen byproducts: Na, O2; no reaction until 700°C, 900°C;100%
With hydrogen byproducts: Na, O2; no reaction until 700°C, 900°C;100%

5Na2O*12WO3*28H2O

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
in hydrogen stream at 900°C;100%
in hydrogen stream at 900°C;100%

tungsten(IV) sulfide

A

7704-34-9

sulfur

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
2000°C, fast react.;A n/a
B 100%
2000°C, fast react.;A n/a
B 100%
1200°C, 2 h;A n/a
B 60%
1200°C, 2 h;A n/a
B 60%

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium In solid byproducts: MgO; (Ar) milled at room temp. and reaction times from few min up to several h; leached (HCl) under stirring; centrifuged; wached (HCl); wached several times (water); dried at 120°C (air);84%
With hydrogen fluoride In not given Electrolysis; in 4.6 n soln. at 95°C, 0.65-1A per cm2 on mercury cathode, with H2SO4 and HCl complete scale pptn.;20%
With hydrogen fine powder at 80 atm, 550-600°C;
13283-01-7

tungsten(VI) chloride

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With magnesium hydride In toluene byproducts: H2; (argon); refluxing WCl6 and MgH2 in toluene in a mill under continuous grinding (8.5 h); washing (toluene), trituration with EtOH, filtration, boiling with concd. HCl, filtration, washing (H2O; EtOH), drying;82.9%
on annealing single crystal tungsten wire covered with Mo single crystal layer;
pptn. on glowing tungsten wire in vac. at 1600-1700 °C;

tungsten dichloride

7439-95-4

magnesium

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
redn. at beginning red heat, leaching with water;61.03%
redn. at beginning red heat, leaching with water;61.03%
incomplete reaction at red head;;
incomplete reaction at red head;;

W6I12

W6(12+)*12Cl(1-)=W6Cl12

A

4Cl(1-)*W6I8(4+)

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 600℃; for 12h; Milling; Sealed tube;A 60%
B n/a
14040-11-0

tungsten hexacarbonyl

99035-49-1

1-[{[Bis-(2-diethylphosphanyl-ethyl)-phosphanyl]-methyl}-(2-diethylphosphanyl-ethyl)-phosphanyl]-2-diethylphosphanyl-ethane

120120-97-0

W2(CO)7(C19H43P5)

114221-42-0

fac,fac-(tungsten)2(carbonyl)6(eHTP)

C

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In xylene N2- or Ar atmosphere; addn. of W(CO)6 and org. compd. to xylol, refluxing (5 d); cooling, evapn. (vac.), filtn., dissoln. CH2Cl2, filtn., recrystn. (CH2Cl2/toluene);A 40%
B n/a
C n/a

tungsten diselenide

A

7782-49-2

selenium

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) heating of WSe2 single crystal flakes enclosed in envelopes made by thin Ta plates by passing current;A 30%
B n/a
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) heating single crystal flakes of WSe2 by current in high vac.;
14040-11-0

tungsten hexacarbonyl

87-85-4

Hexamethylbenzene

A

33505-53-2

W(CO)3(η6-Me6C6)

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In decane under Ar, educts added to n-decane, slowly heated to reflux, refluxed for 20 h with periodical shaking, cooled; filtered through SiO2 with CH2Cl2, evapd. in vac., crystals filtered, washed with pentane, dried in vac.;A 28%
B n/a

iron silicon

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium carbide byproducts: CaO, CO; Electric Arc; redn. with carbide ferrosilicium mixt. in elec. oven or arc at 2800-2900°C; carbon free tungsten;
With calcium carbide In melt
In melt in elec. oven;

iron silicon

wolframite MnWO4

wolframite MnWO4

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With calcium carbide In melt
In melt in elec. oven;

sodium tungstate

disodium telluride

A

tellurium

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogenchloride In water adding HCl, pptn.;
With HCl In water adding HCl, pptn.;

boron trioxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

A

tungsten boride

B

tungsten monoboride

C

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) Electrolysis; melt composition: NaCl (39.5 wt-%), Na3AlF6 (39.5 wt-%), WO3 (1.0 wt-%),B2O3 (20.0 wt-%), 950°C, graphite crucible (container and anode) , W- or Ni-bars as cathode, U=4.0 V, t=20 min; products sepn. by hot water and 10% H2SO4 at 50-70°C; powder XRD;

boron trioxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

A

tungsten monoboride

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) Electrolysis; melt composition: NaCl (39.5 wt-%), Na3AlF6 (39.5 wt-%), WO3 (1.0 wt-%),B2O3 (20.0 wt-%), 950°C, graphite crucible (container and anode) , W- or Ni-bars as cathode, U=4.0 V, t=10 min; products sepn. by hot water and 10% H2SO4 at 50-70°C; powder XRD;

boron trioxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

A

tungsten boride

B

tungsten tetraboride

C

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) Electrolysis; melt composition: NaCl (39.5 wt-%), Na3AlF6 (39.5 wt-%), WO3 (1.0 wt-%),B2O3 (20.0 wt-%), 950°C, graphite crucible (container and anode) , W- or Ni-bars as cathode, U=4.0 V, t=30 min; products sepn. by hot water and 10% H2SO4 at 50-70°C; powder XRD;

boron trioxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) Electrolysis; melt composition: NaCl (39.5 wt-%), Na3AlF6 (39.5 wt-%), WO3 (1.0 wt-%),B2O3 (20.0 wt-%), 950°C, graphite crucible (container and anode) , W- or Ni-bars as cathode, U=4.0 V, t=5 min;

sodium azide

13283-01-7

tungsten(VI) chloride

A

tungsten nitride

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
byproducts: N2, NaCl; vac., heating in ampoule (300-400°C); cooling, washing (MeOH), drying (vac.), powder XRD, FT IR;

potassium tungstate

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; neutral or light alk. raw material, 900-1000°C, 60-80% yield of current, light pptn. of tungsten powder or single crystal; 99.3% tungsten content, impurities: SiO2 and alk.;
With hydrogen0%
In melt Electrochem. Process; electrodeposition (LiF-KF eutectic melt, 973 K); scanning electron microscopy, electron probe anal.;

potassium tungstate

sodium tungstate

lithium tungstate

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; neutral or light alk. raw material, 900-1000°C, 60-80% yield of current, light pptn. of tungsten powder or single crystal; 99.3% tungsten content, impurities: SiO2 and alk.;
In melt Electrolysis; m. 500°C, 6 A per cm2; product mixt. of α and β modifikation;

ammonium iodide

33963-20-1

tungsten hexaiodide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In further solvent(s) Electrolysis; in furfural soln.;0%

tungsten monocarbide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
repeated thermic and mech. treatments; carbon free product;
heating;
repeated thermic and mech. treatments; carbon free product;
heating;

manganese oxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

7429-90-5

aluminium

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With manganese(IV) oxide violent aluminothermic react.; very pure product by dissolving other metals from tungsten manganese alloy;

thorium(IV) nitrate

ceric nitrate

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With hydrogen mixing of WO3 with soln. of additives, drying paste and redn. at 1000°C;

sodium tungstate

A

sodium polytungstate

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; electrolysis in NaCl electrolyte under Ar, cathode current density of 0.2 A/cm**2, anode current density of 0.04 A/cm**2, at 850-950°C; emf: 1.2-1.8 V;

sodium tungstate

lithium tungstate

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Electrolysis; 1123 - 1173 K, U = 1.9 V;

sodium tungstate

lithium tungstate

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; on tungsten single crystal cathode at 900°C, 6 or 8 angular single crystal formation;

sodium tungstate

lithium tungstate

554-13-2

lithium carbonate

A

tungsten carbide

B

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) Electrolysis; 1 mol % of carbonate, 1123 - 1173 K, U = 1.9 V;

sodium tungstate

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electrolysis; with lower current density, with higher current density bronze formation;

lanthanum(III) oxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-48-4

cobalt

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

La3CoS3(6+)*WO6(6-)=La3CoWS3O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt stoich. amts. of La2O3, S, W, WO3, Co mixed with KCl flux; sealed in carbon coated SiO2 ampoule under vac.; heated from 200 to 400°C in 24 h; held for 48 h; heated to 950°C in 12 h; held for 120 h; cooled to room temp. within 24 h; soaked in H2O overnight; washed with H2O; detn. by EDX, XRD;100%
7783-82-6

tungsten(VI) fluoride

sodium fluoride

7440-33-7

tungsten

55822-76-9

sodium hexafluorotungstate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) in an inert atmosphere under N2; 850°C for 30 min; before use NaFdried at 300°C overnight (vac.), recrystd. from molten state;98%
7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

tungsten thiobromide complex

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With Br2 In neat (no solvent) heating in an evacuated sealed quartz ampoule at 300°C for 48 h, stirring thoroughly and heating for another 72 h; opening, washing of the solid with CHCl3 and hot benzene and drying (vac.); elem. anal.;97%

potassium fluoride

7783-82-6

tungsten(VI) fluoride

7440-33-7

tungsten

A

potassium octafluorotungstate(VI)

B

34629-85-1

potassium hexafluorotungstate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) in an inert atmosphere under N2; 850°C for 30 min; before use KF dried at 300°C overnight (vac.), recrystd. from molten state; K2WF8 identified by Raman spectrum;A n/a
B 97%

rubidium fluoride

7783-82-6

tungsten(VI) fluoride

7440-33-7

tungsten

53639-97-7

rubidium hexafluorotungstate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) in an inert atmosphere under N2; 800°C for 2 h; RbF before use dried in situ at 600°C for 5 h (vac.) before addition WF6;96%
7440-47-3

chromium

7440-02-0

nickel

7429-90-5

aluminium

7440-33-7

tungsten

A

Ni(77.1),Cr(2.0),Al(17.9),W(3.0) (A%)

Ni(77.1),Cr(2.0),Al(17.9),W(3.0) (A%)

B

Ni(79.8),Cr(5.8),Al(12.2),W(2.2) (A%)

Ni(79.8),Cr(5.8),Al(12.2),W(2.2) (A%)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt Electric Arc; ingots by arc melting of Ni(75)-Cr(2.5)-Al(20)-W(2.5) (at%), several remelts, sealed in silica tube under vac. with partial pressure of Ar, 1573K (2 weeks), furnace cooled to 1523K, 4 weeks, 1273K (6 weeks), quenched in iced water; electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction;A 95%
B 5%
7783-82-6

tungsten(VI) fluoride

13400-13-0

cesium fluoride

7440-33-7

tungsten

19175-38-3

cesium hexafluorotungstate(V)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) in an inert atmosphere under N2; 800°C for 2 h; CsF before use dried in situ at 600°C for 5 h (vac.) before addition WF6;94%

bis(cyclopentadienyl)tungsten dichloride

7783-82-6

tungsten(VI) fluoride

7440-33-7

tungsten

2{WCl2(C5H5)2}(1+)*{W4F18}(2-)={WCl2(C5H5)2}2{W4F18}

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In sulfur dioxide Sonication; condensing WF6 onto a frozen mixture (10ml) of W(C5H5)Cl2 and activated W in SO2 at -196°C; warming react. mixture to room temp., stirring, 30min in an ultrasonic bath; allowing to react, 12h;; filtration; removal of sulfur dioxide; elem. anal.; IR;;94%
7440-33-7

tungsten

tungstic acid

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With CH3OH; Br2 In methanol byproducts: CH3OBr, HCOOCH3, H2O; a mixt. of Br2, MeOH and powdered W was stirred at 45-60°C for 12 h, additional Br2 may be added; further by-products; rinsed with MeOH, filtered, dried in vac.;93%
With CH3OH; Br2 In methanol byproducts: HBr, (CH3)2O, CH3Br; a mixt. of Br2, MeOH and powdered W was stirred at 45-60°C for 12 h, additional Br2 may be added; further by-products; rinsed with MeOH, filtered, dried in vac.;93%

polysilazane

7440-33-7

tungsten

W(90.86),Si(6.18),C(1.55) (X%)

W(90.86),Si(6.18),C(1.55) (X%)

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene ultrasoning mixing soln. of org. polymer and W (30 min); solvent removal (vac.); residue breaking; pyrolysis to 1500°C (argon stream, 5°C/min, 4 h hold); X-ray diffraction;93%
13283-01-7

tungsten(VI) chloride

7440-33-7

tungsten

13470-13-8

tungsten(IV) chloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In 1,2-dichloro-ethane at 20℃; for 17h;93%
593-85-1

diguanidine carbonate

7440-33-7

tungsten

guanidinium tetrafluorodioxowolframate

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With 65percent HNO3; HF In hydrogen fluoride aq. HF; dissolution of W powder in 40% HF and 65% HNO3, slow addn. of (C(NH2)3)2CO3 in 40% HF under stirring; filtn., washing with water, drying in air, elem. anal.;92%
10025-67-9

disulfur dichloride

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

25127-53-1

tungsten(VI) sulfide tetrachloride

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) heating (2E-4 Torr, 425°C, 48 h), slow cooling;89%

polysilazane

7664-41-7

ammonia

7440-33-7

tungsten

pentatungsten trisilicide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In toluene ultrasoning mixing soln. of org. polymer and W (30 min); solvent removal (vac.); residue breaking; pyrolysis to 800°C (ammonia stream, 5°C/min, 4 h hold); further heating to 1500°C (5°C/min, argon stream); X-ray diffraction;89%
7440-21-3

silicon

7440-33-7

tungsten

A

tungsten silicide

B

pentatungsten trisilicide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
at 1350℃; for 4h; Inert atmosphere;A 85%
B 15%
In neat (no solvent, solid phase) react. of tungsten and silicon above 1070 K;
In melt under Ar; mixt. of W and Si melted in siliconized graphite crucible at 2100°C; held no longer than 2 min with vibration stirring; detd. by X-ray microanalysis;

potassium fluoride

7664-39-3

hydrogen fluoride

7722-84-1

dihydrogen peroxide

7440-33-7

tungsten

2K(1+)*WO(O2)F4(2-)*H2O = K2{WO(O2)F4}*H2O

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In water Electrolysis; electrolysis of H2O2 and HF solns. for 120 min (anode: metal rod, cathode: Pt foil), voltage 5-10 V, current 0.05 A, temp. 0-5°C, soln. remained colorless; filtered, addn. of KF in HF, pptn., filtered, washed with ethanol, dried over KOH; elem. anal.;84%
In water metal dissolved in a mixt. of HF and H2O2 solns. with stirring, temp. maintained below 10°C; filtered, addn. of KF in HF;60-70
67-56-1

methanol

7440-33-7

tungsten

A

35869-33-1

tungsten hexamethoxide

B

19174-06-2

tungsten oxomethoxide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With LiCl In methanol Electrochem. Process; anodic oxidation of W in MeOH in the presence of LiCl (110 V, 12 h); evapn. to dryness (vac.), extn. (hexane), drying (vac.); mixture of the 2 compds.;A 81%
B 17%
452-73-3

2-chloro-4-fluorotoluene

7440-33-7

tungsten

45767-66-6

2-chloro-4-fluorobenzylbromide

Conditions
ConditionsYield
With bromine In tetrachloromethane80%

lanthanum(III) oxide

7439-96-5

manganese

tungsten(VI) oxide

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

La3MnS3(6+)*WO6(6-)=La3MnWS3O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt stoich. amts. of La2O3, S, W, WO3, Mn mixed with KCl flux; sealed in carbon coated SiO2 ampoule under vac.; heated from 200 to 400°C in 24 h; held for 48 h; heated to 950°C in 12 h; held for 120 h; cooled to room temp. within 24 h; soaked in H2O overnight; washed with H2O; detn. by EDX, XRD;80%

lanthanum(III) oxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

7440-02-0

nickel

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

La3NiS3(6+)*WO6(6-)=La3NiWS3O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt stoich. amts. of La2O3, S, W, WO3, Ni mixed with KCl flux; sealed in carbon coated SiO2 ampoule under vac.; heated from 200 to 400°C in 24 h; held for 48 h; heated to 950°C in 12 h; held for 120 h; cooled to room temp. within 24 h; soaked in H2O overnight; washed with H2O; detn. by EDX, XRD;80%

lanthanum(III) oxide

7440-47-3

chromium

tungsten(VI) oxide

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

La3CrS3(6+)*WO6(6-)=La3CrWS3O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt stoich. amts. of La2O3, S, W, WO3, Cr mixed with KCl flux; sealed in carbon coated SiO2 ampoule under vac.; heated from 200 to 400°C in 24 h; held for 48 h; heated to 950°C in 12 h; held for 120 h; cooled to room temp. within 24 h; soaked in H2O overnight; washed with H2O; detn. by EDX, XRD;80%

lanthanum(III) oxide

tungsten(VI) oxide

7704-34-9

sulfur

7440-33-7

tungsten

La3FeS3(6+)*WO6(6-)=La3FeWS3O6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In melt stoich. amts. of La2O3, S, W, WO3, Fe mixed with KCl flux; sealed in carbon coated SiO2 ampoule under vac.; heated from 200 to 400°C in 24 h; held for 48 h; heated to 950°C in 12 h; held for 120 h; cooled to room temp. within 24 h; soaked in H2O overnight; washed with H2O; detn. by EDX, XRD;80%
142-29-0

cyclopentene

7440-33-7

tungsten

594-09-2

trimethylphosphane

A

(η-cyclopentadienyl)trihydridobis(trimethylphosphine)tungsten

B

(W(η-C5H5)(PMe3)H5)

C

(tungsten)(triphenylphosphane)4(hydride)(P(CH3)2CH2)

D

W(C5H5)(C5H8)(P(CH3)3)2H

Conditions
ConditionsYield
-196°C; not isolated, detected by NMR;A 10%
B <1
C 20%
D 70%
7726-95-6

bromine

7440-33-7

tungsten

Br12W6

Conditions
ConditionsYield
In neat (no solvent) byproducts: WBr4, WO2Br2; W powder and Br2 in evacuated and sealed ampule cooled to liq. N2; I endof ampole heated to 750°C, II - to 40°C; WBr5 formed; the n ampole heated at gradient of 750-540°C for 40 h, cooled to roomtemp.; purified by sublimation at 540°C in dynamic vac.; detd. by powderXRD;67%

Tungsten History

In 1779 Peter Woulfe examined the mineral now known as wolframite and concluded it must contain a new substance. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1781, found that a new acid could be made from tungsten (a name first applied about 1758 to a mineral now known as scheelite). Scheele and Berman suggested the possibility of obtaining a new metal by reducing this acid. The de Elhuyar brothers found acid in wolframite in 1783 that was identical to the acid of tungsten (tungstic acid) of Scheele, and in that year they succeeded in obtaining the element by reduction of this acid with charcoal. Tungsten occurs in wolframite, scheelite, huebnertie, and ferberite. Important deposits of tungsten occur in California, Colorado, South Korea, Bolivia, Russia, and Portugal. China is reported to have about 75% of the world's tungsten resources. Natural tungsten contains five stable isotopes. Twenty one other unstable isotopes are recognized. The metal is obtained commercially be reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon.
In World War II, tungsten played a significant role in background political dealings. Portugal was put under pressure from both sides, because of its deposits of wolframite ore. Tungsten's resistance to high temperatures and its strength in alloys made it an important raw material for the weaponry industry.

Tungsten Consensus Reports

Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Tungsten Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA (Insoluble compounds) 5 mg(W)/m3; STEL 10 mg(W)/m3; (soluble compounds) 1 mg(W)/m3; STEL 3 mg(W)/m3
ACGIH TLV: TWA (Insoluble compounds) 5 mg(W)/m3; STEL 10 mg(W)/m3; (soluble compounds) 1 mg(W)/m3; STEL 3 mg(W)/m3
NIOSH REL: (Tungsten, Insoluble) TWA 5 mg(W)/m3

Tungsten Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Tungsten, 7074; Elements, 7300.

Tungsten Specification

The Tungsten is an organic compound with the formula W. The IUPAC name of this chemical is tungsten. With the CAS registry number 7440-33-7, it is also named as volframio. The product's categories are Inorganics; 74: W; TungstenNanomaterials; Materials Science; Nanomaterials; Nanoparticles: Metals and Metal AlloysMetal and Ceramic Science; Nanopowders and Nanoparticle Dispersions; Metal and Ceramic Science; Metals; Tungsten. Besides, it is a grey metal chunks or grey powder, which should be stored in a dry and well-ventilated place.

Preparation: this chemical can also be extracted by hydrogen reduction of WF6:
WF6 + 3 H2 → W + 6 HF  
or pyrolytic decomposition:
WF6 → W + 3 F2 (ΔHr = +)

Uses of Tungsten: it is of great importance to the metal-working, mining, and petroleum industries. Calcium and magnesium tungstates are widely used in fluorescent lighting; other salts of tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries. Tungsten disulfide is a dry, high-temperature lubricant, stable to 500 °C. Tungsten bronzes and other tungsten compounds are used in paints. Due to its conductive properties, as well as its relative chemical inertia, tungsten is also used in electrodes, and in the emitter tips in electron-beam instruments that use field emission guns, such as electron microscopes. In electronics, tungsten is used as an interconnect material in integrated circuits, between the silicon dioxide dielectric material and the transistors. It is used in metallic films, which replace the wiring used in conventional electronics with a coat of tungsten (or molybdenum) on silicon.
The electronic structure of tungsten makes it one of the main sources for X-ray targets, and also for shielding from high-energy radiations (such as in the radiopharmaceutical industry for shielding radioactive samples of FDG). Tungsten powder is used as a filler material in plastic composites, which are used as a nontoxic substitute for lead in bullets, shot, and radiation shields. Since this element's thermal expansion is similar to borosilicate glass, it is used for making glass-to-metal seals.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is highly flammable and danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation. If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Besides, this chemical is irritating to eyes and skin and toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. It is possible risk of impaired fertility and vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. When you are using it, wear suitable suitable protective clothing and gloves and avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
(1)SMILES: [W]
(2)InChI: InChI=1/W
(3)InChIKey: WFKWXMTUELFFGS-UHFFFAOYAH
(4)Std. InChI: InChI=1S/W
(5)Std. InChIKey: WFKWXMTUELFFGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N

The toxicity data is as follows:

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) VASCULAR: REGIONAL OR GENERAL ARTERIOLAR OR VENOUS DILATION

LIVER: OTHER CHANGES

BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Industrial Medicine. Vol. 15, Pg. 482, 1946.

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