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74-90-8

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Basic Information
CAS No.: 74-90-8
Name: Hydrocyanic acid
Molecular Structure:
Molecular Structure of 74-90-8 (Hydrocyanic acid)
Formula: CHN
Molecular Weight: 27.03
Synonyms: Acide cyanhydrique;BRN 1718793;Carbon hydride nitride (CHN);Acido cianidrico;Formic anammonide;Formonitrile;Hydrogen cyanide;Prussic acid;Cyclon;UN 1051;UNII-2WTB3V159F;
EINECS: 200-821-6
Density: 0.695 g/cm3
Melting Point: -13.4 °C, 260 K, 8 °F
Boiling Point: 25.7 °C at 760 mmHg
Flash Point: -17.8 °C
Solubility: Miscible with water
Appearance: Colorless liquid
Hazard Symbols: HighlyF+,VeryT+,DangerousN
Risk Codes: 12-26-50/53-26/27/28
Safety: 7/9-16-36/37-38-45-60-61
Transport Information: UN 1051 6.1/PG 1
PSA: 23.79000
LogP: 0.13978
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History

HYDROCYANIC ACID(74-90-8) was first isolated from a blue dye (Prussian blue) which had been known from 1704 but had a structure which was unknown.
In 1752 the French chemist Pierre Macquer made the important step of showing that Prussian blue could be converted to iron oxide plus a volatile component and that these could be used to reconstitute the dye.
In 1787 the French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet showed that Prussic acid did not contain oxygen, an important contribution to acid theory.
In 1815 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac deduced Prussic acid's chemical formula. The radical cyanide in hydrogen cyanide was given its name from the Greek word for blue, again due to its derivation from Prussian blue.

Consensus Reports

EPA Extremely Hazardous Substances List. Community Right-To-Know List. Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: STEL 4.7 ppm (skin)
ACGIH TLV: CL 4.7 ppm (skin)
DFG MAK: 10 ppm (11 mg/m3)
NIOSH REL: (Cyanide) CL 5 mg(CN)/m3/10M
DOT Classification:  6.1; Label: Poison (NA 1613, UN 1613, UN 1614); DOT Class: Forbidden (unstabilized); DOT Class: 6.1; Label: Poison, Flammable Liquid (UN 1051)

Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use NIOSH: Cyanides, 7904.

Specification

The Hydrocyanic acid with CAS registry number of 74-90-8 is also known as Acide cyanhydrique. The IUPAC name is Formonitrile. It belongs to product categories of Hydrocyanic Acid; Inorganics; Inorganic Fluorides. Its EINECS registry number is 200-821-6. In addition, the formula is CHN and the molecular weight is 27.03. This chemical is a colorless liquid and should be stored in ventilated, cool, dry place away from Acids, alkalis and oxides.

Physical properties about Hydrocyanic acid are: (1)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1; (2)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1; (3)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 17.418; (4)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 17.418; (5)#H bond acceptors: 1; (6)Index of Refraction: 1.262; (7)Molar Refractivity: 6.418 cm3; (8)Molar Volume: 38.885 cm3; (9)Surface Tension: 18.898 dyne/cm; (10)Density: 0.695 g/cm3; (11)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 27.182 kJ/mol; (12)Boiling Point: 25.7 °C at 760 mmHg; (13)Vapour Pressure: 740.337 mmHg at 25 °C.

Preparation of Hydrocyanic acid: it is prepared by reaction of methane and ammonia in the presence of oxygen at the temperature of about 1200 °C over a platinum catalyst.

2CH4+2NH3+3O2→2HCN+6H2O

Uses of Hydrocyanic acid: it is used to produce hydroxy-acetonitrile by reaction with formaldehyde. The reaction occurs with reagent KCN and solvent CH2Cl2. The yield is about 85%. What's more, it is used as pesticide and for manufacture of cyanide. It is also used to synthesize nitrile rubber, synthetic fibers, plastics, glass and so on.

Hydrocyanic acid is used to produce hydroxy-acetonitrile by reaction with formaldehyde.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it. As a chemical, it is very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. What's more, it is extremely flammable and very toxic to aquatic organisms that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. During using it, wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place away from sources of ignition. In case of insufficient ventilation wear suitable respiratory equipment and if accident happens or you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately. This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Avoid release to the environment.

You can still convert the following datas into molecular structure:
1. Canonical SMILES: C#N
2. InChI: InChI=1S/CHN/c1-2/h1H
3. InChIKey: LELOWRISYMNNSU-UHFFFAOYSA-N

The toxicity data is as follows: 

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
bird - domestic LDLo oral 600ug/kg (0.6mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
bird - domestic LDLo subcutaneous 100ug/kg (0.1mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
bird - wild LDLo oral 7500ug/kg (7.5mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
bird - wild LDLo subcutaneous 100ug/kg (0.1mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
cat LD50 intravenous 810ug/kg (0.81mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
cat LDLo subcutaneous 1100ug/kg (1.1mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
dog LD50 intravenous 1340ug/kg (1.34mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
dog LDLo oral 4mg/kg (4mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
dog LDLo subcutaneous 1700ug/kg (1.7mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
domestic animals - goat/sheep LD50 intravenous 660ug/kg (0.66mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB158-508,
duck LDLo oral 3280ug/kg (3.28mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
frog LDLo subcutaneous 60mg/kg (60mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
guinea pig LD50 intravenous 1430ug/kg (1.43mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
guinea pig LDLo subcutaneous 100ug/kg (0.1mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
human LCLo inhalation 120mg/m3/1H (120mg/m3)   Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, Pg. 255, 1942.
human LCLo inhalation 200mg/m3/10M (200mg/m3) BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC

GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
World Health Organization, Technical Report Series. Vol. -, Pg. 30, 1970.
human LDLo oral 570ug/kg (0.57mg/kg)   Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. Vol. -, Pg. 596, 1966.
human LDLo subcutaneous 1mg/kg (1mg/kg)   Science Journal. Vol. 3(4), Pg. 33, 1967.
mammal (species unspecified) LCLo inhalation 36ppm/2H (36ppm)   Tabulae Biologicae. Vol. 3, Pg. 231, 1933.
mammal (species unspecified) LCLo inhalation 200ppm/5M (200ppm)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 138, Pg. 65, 1928.
man LCLo inhalation 400mg/m3/2M (400mg/m3)   "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 75, 1982.
man LDLo unreported 1471ug/kg (1.471mg/kg)   "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.
man TCLo inhalation 500mg/m3/3M-C (500mg/m3) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: MYDRIASIS (PUPILLARY DILATION): EYE

BEHAVIORAL: COMA

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Human Toxicology. Vol. 3, Pg. 57, 1984.
man TDLo intravenous 55ug/kg (0.055mg/kg) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB158-508,
monkey LD50 intravenous 1300ug/kg (1.3mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
mouse LC50 inhalation 323ppm/5M (323ppm)   Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 42, Pg. 417, 1977.
mouse LD50 intramuscular 2700ug/kg (2.7mg/kg)   British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 23, Pg. 455, 1964.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 2990ug/kg (2.99mg/kg)   British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 23, Pg. 455, 1964.
mouse LD50 intravenous 990ug/kg (0.99mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
mouse LD50 oral 3700ug/kg (3.7mg/kg)   Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises. Vol. 19, Pg. 740, 1961.
mouse LDLo subcutaneous 3mg/kg (3mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
pig LDLo oral 2mg/kg (2mg/kg)   Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 22, Pg. 496, 1971.
pigeon LDLo intramuscular 1500ug/kg (1.5mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
pigeon LDLo oral 14mg/kg (14mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
pigeon LDLo subcutaneous 2150ug/kg (2.15mg/kg)   "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931Vol. -, Pg. -, 1931.
rabbit LC50 inhalation 208mg/m3/35M (208mg/m3) BRAIN AND COVERINGS: OTHER DEGENERATIVE CHANGES

CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES

BLOOD: OTHER CHANGES
Toxic Substances Journal. Vol. 13, Pg. 263, 1994.
rabbit LD50 intramuscular 486ug/kg (0.486mg/kg)   Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 1(3), Pg. 120, 1982.
rabbit LD50 intraperitoneal 1570ug/kg (1.57mg/kg)   British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 23, Pg. 455, 1964.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 660ug/kg (0.66mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,
rabbit LD50 ocular 1040ug/kg (1.04mg/kg) SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE

LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION

BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
Journal of Toxicology, Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 119, 1983.
rabbit LD50 subcutaneous 2500ug/kg (2.5mg/kg)   British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 23, Pg. 455, 1964.
rabbit LDLo oral 4mg/kg (4mg/kg)   "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1340, 1935.
rat LC50 inhalation 160ppm/30M (160ppm)   Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 9, Pg. 236, 1987.
rat LD50 intravenous 810ug/kg (0.81mg/kg)   National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A028-501,