A solution of aqueous HBr ca 48% (w/w, constant boiling) is purified by distilling twice with a little red phosphorus, and the middle half of the distillate is taken. (The azeotrope at 760mm contains 47.8% (w/w) HBr.) [Hetzer et al. J Phys Chem 66 1423 1962]. Free bromine can be removed by Irvine and Wilson's method for HI (see above), except that the column is regenerated by washing with an ethanolic solution of aniline or styrene. Hydrobromic acid can also be purified by aerating with H2S, distilling and collecting the fraction boiling at 125-127o. [Heisig & Andur Inorg Synth I 155 1939.] HARMFUL VAPOURS.
Inhalation causes severe irritation of nose and upper respiratory tract, lung injury. Ingestion causes burns of mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes causes severe irritation and burns. Contact with skin causes irritation and burns.
Colorless or light yellow liquid, slightly smoke. Soluble in chlorobenzene, diethoxymethane and other organic solvents. Can be miscibled with water, alcohol, acetic acid.
Behavior in Fire: Pressurized container may explode and release toxic, irritating vapor.
HYDROGEN BROMIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate, calcium phosphide, calcium carbide.
(1) Hydrogen bromide is the basic raw material for the manufacture of a variety of inorganic bromide (Such as sodium bromide, potassium bromide, lithium bromide and calcium bromide and so on) and some alkyl bromide (Such as methyl bromide, bromoethane and so on). It is used in medicine to synthesize the synthesis of sedatives and anesthetics, etc. and also is a good solvent for some metal minerals, used in the refinement of high purity metals. In the petroleum industry, it is used as the separation of alkoxy and phenoxy compounds, and a catalyst for the oxidation of cyclic hydrocarbons and chain hydrocarbons to ketones, acid or peroxide. Also used in synthetic dyes and spices.
(2) For the manufacture of inorganic and organic bromide; also used for synthetic perfumes, dyes and so on.
(3) For the refinement of high purity and bromide synthesis, also used as analytical reagents
(4) Determination of sulfur, selenium, bismuth, zinc and iron. Separation of tin from arsenic and antimony. Alkylation catalyst. Reducing agent. Organic Synthesis. Preparation of organic and inorganic bromides. High purity metal refining.
(5) It is the basic raw material for the manufacture of a variety of inorganic bromide (Such as sodium bromide, potassium bromide, lithium bromide and calcium bromide and so on ) and some alkyl bromide (Such as methyl bromide, bromoethane and so on). It is used in medicine to synthesize the synthesis of sedatives and anesthetics, etc. and also is a good solvent for some metal minerals, used in the refinement of high purity metals. In the petroleum industry, it is used as the separation of alkoxy and phenoxy compounds, and a catalyst for the oxidation of cyclic hydrocarbons and chain hydrocarbons to ketones, acid or peroxide. Also used in synthetic dyes and spices. It is used in the manufacture of various bromine compounds, can also be used for medicine, dyes, spices and other industries. For the purification of high purity and synthesis of bromide, and also for analysis reagents. For the manufacture of inorganic and organic bromide; also used for synthetic perfumes, dyes and so on.
(6) Used as analytical reagent. Determination of sulfur and selenium, separation of tin from arsenic and antimony, determination of bismuth, zinc and iron, alkylation catalyst.
Hazards & Safety Information
Category: Harmful gas
Toxicity classification: Poisoning
Acute toxicity: Inhalation-Rats LC50: 2858 PPM/h; Inhalation-mice LC50: 814 PPM/h
Hazardous properties of explosives: Mixed with air explosion
Flammability hazard characteristics: It is combustible in case of H hair pore agent; Case of cyanide release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas; Thermal decomposition of toxic bromide gas.
Storage and transportation characteristics: Low temperature and dry storage; and cyanide, Separate storage with cyanide, H hair pore agent, and alkali.
Fire extinguishing agent: water
Professional standards: TWA 3 PPM (10mg/m3)
colourless liquid with a strong irritating odour
The Concentrated acid is used principally in analytical chemistry and organic preparations.
(1) Bromine and hydrogen reaction of hydrogen bromide in the Presence of Activated Carbon Catalyst. Followed by distillation and purification to obtain hydrogen bromide. Br2+H2→2HBr
(2) Red phosphorus method: First, the red phosphorus into the water reactor, slowly adding bromine under stirring, the reaction of hydrobromic acid and phosphoric acid, by sedimentation, filtration, distillation obtained hydrobromic acid. P4+6Br2+12H2O→12HBr+4H3PO3
Sulfur dioxide method: The sulfur dioxide is added into the reaction kettle with bromine and crushed ice, and the reaction is continued until the temperature is below 20 ℃ until the solution is yellow. The mixed solution is distilled, and the solution is added to the solution of barium hydroxide and sulfuric acid to produce barium sulfate precipitation. After standing, filtering, remove the precipitate, then distillation of the filtrate was hydrobromic acid products.
Air & Water Reactions
Acrid odor, fumes in moist air forming clouds containing hydrobromic acid. Heat of solution large, [Merck, 11th ed., 1989].