Air & Water Reactions
Slightly soluble in water.
Reflux the brown liquid with solid KBr and distil, then dry the distillate by shaking it with an equal volume of conc H2SO4, then redistil it. The H2SO4 treatment can be replaced by direct distillation from BaO or P2O5 A more extensive purification [Hildenbrand et al. J Am Chem Soc 80 4129 1958] is to reflux about 1L of bromine for 1hour with a mixture of 16g of CrO3 in 200mL of conc H2SO4 (to remove organic material). The bromine is distilled into a clean, dry, glass-stoppered bottle, and chlorine is removed by dissolving ca 25g of freshly fused CsBr in 500mL of the bromine and standing overnight. To remove HBr and water, the bromine is then distilled back and forth through a train containing alternate tubes of MgO and P2O5. [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 275 1963.] HIGHLY TOXIC.
manufacture of organic and inorganic chemicals, such as fuel additives, fire retardants, pesticides, oil well drilling fluids, pharmaceuticals, dyestuffs. In water disinfection; as bleaching agent, surface disinfectant.
BROMINE SOLUTION is an oxidizing agent. Bromine disproportionates rapidly in basic water to give bromide ion and bromate ion. The latter is also an oxidizing agent. Dissolution lowers reactivity compared to pure bromine. Reacts with reducing reagents. Reacts with hydrogen, diethylzinc, dimethylformamide, ammonia, trimethylamine, nitromethane, metal azides (silver or sodium azide). Can react with Mg, Sr, B, Al, Hg, Ti, Sn, Sb in powder or sheet form, to form bromides. Can react with methanol, ethanol, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, diethyl ether, carbonyl compounds, tetrahydrofuran, acrylonitrile, ozone, phosphorus, natural rubber. Reactions with red phosphorus, metal azides, nitromethane, silane and its homologues may be vigorous.[Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 109].
Butane, CH3(CH2)2CH3, also known as n-butane and methyl-ethyl methane,is a colorless gas that occurs in natural gas and is obtained by cracking petroleum. It is used as a refrigerant and as a fuel.
A reddish-brown aqueous solution. The solubility of bromine in water equals 0.33 mg/ mL.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.