Oral-rat LD50: 220 mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50: 139 mg/kg.
Dry powder, carbon dioxide and sand. pH extinguishing agent should be disabled.
TOXIC; may be fatal if inhaled, ingested or absorbed through skin. Inhalation or contact with some of these materials will irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Reflux it with P2O5 for one day, then distil it through a helices-packed column. Also purified by gas chromatography. [Beilstein 2 IV 492.] LACHRYMATOR, HIGHLY TOXIC.
Treasury: ventilated and low-temperature and dry; store it separately from oxidants, acids and food additives.
Chloroacetonitrile reacts with water, steam, strong acids or acid fumes to produce toxic vapors of hydrogen chloride. When heated to decomposition, Chloroacetonitrile emits highly toxic fumes of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride [Sax, 2nd ed., 1963, p. 600].
1. It can be used as raw material of organic synthesis and analytical reagents.
2. It can be used as pharmaceutical intermediates, pesticides.
Air & Water Reactions
Flammable. Insoluble in water and denser than water. Hence, sinks in water. Reacts with water and steam to produce toxic vapors of hydrogen chloride.
Skin-Rabbit 14 mg/24 hr mild; Eye-Rabbit 20 mg/24 hours of moderate.
A colorless liquid with a pungent odor. Flash point 118°F. Insoluble in water and denser than water. Hence, sinks in water. Very toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. A lachrymator. Used to make other chemicals and as a fumigant.
Flammable and hazardous characteristics
Combustible upon fire with thermal decomposition into toxic nitrogen compounds, chloride and cyanide gas.
It can be obtained through: chloroacetic acid is reacted with ethanol to generate ethyl chloroacetate, which then generate chloroacetamide through reaction with ammonia; finally have dehydration to get it. Detailed process: add trichloroacetic acid to the ethanol; add under stirring of concentrated sulfuric acid; the stirring was stopped after heating reflux; have the reaction for 8-10 h, filter and wash with water, separate out the water layer to obtain ethyl chloroacetate. Add it to the ammonia of 0-2 ℃ with the temperature being not exceed 15 ℃; sir for 10 to 15 mins after finishing adding added, cool, stand, filtrate and dry to obtain the chloroacetamide. Then, to the chloroacetamide, add phosphorus pentoxide and perform thermal dehydration with heating and distilling chloroacetonitrile out simultaneously; finally perform distillation under reduced pressure to evaporate out all the chloroacetonitrile. The resulting crude product is hydrated using phosphorus pentoxide and magnesium sulfate with vacuum distillation to derive the finished products.
It is colorless, transparent fuming liquid with a pungent choking smell. It is soluble in alcohol and ether.
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Chloroacetonitrile, also known as "cyanide chloromethane" has its chemical formula being ClCH2CN and the molecular weight being 75.50. It is colorless and fuming liquid with the melting point being 38 ℃ and boiling point being 126~127 ℃ (decomposition), 30~32 ℃ (2.0kPa), the relative density being 1.1930 and the refractive index being 1.420225. It is soluble in ether, alcohol and hydrocarbons but insoluble in water. It is highly toxic. It can form adduct with aluminum trichloride and react with various kinds of reagents including phloroglucinol trimethylether, methoxyacetophenone, Grignard reagent and anhydrous hydrogen chloride. It can be obtained through the dehydration of chloroacetamide under the action of phosphorus pentoxide, or the reaction between excess amount of acetonitrile with chlorine at 460 ℃ as well as introducing ammonia gas into the ether solution of dichloro acetylene. Chloroacetonitrile can be used as a fumigant.
Fumigants refer to a kind of pesticides whose volatile vapor can be applied to poison and kill pests. Its gaseous molecules can enter into the body of the harmful organisms and exert toxic effects. It can also exist in forms being different from gas such as liquid, solid or compressed gaseous form. The usage dose can be calculated according to the volume of space fumigation place (unit: g/m 3). The applied concentration can be based on the fumigation period, the closeness extent of fumigation place and the amount of material as well as its absorption capability of fumigant vapor. It is suitable to be used in the closed or nearly closed conditions in places such as warehouse, tent, house, car, etc. In the case of large concentration of the object to be fumigated, it can effectively eliminate hidden pests or pathogens.
The fumigant vapor generally directly enters into the respiratory system through the skin or valve of the pests, thus penetrating into blood and cause the poisoning and death of pests. Its insecticidal effect is generally believed to be located in the chemical action on the enzyme. For example, methyl bromide can combine with thiol, causing gradually reversible or irreversible inhibitory effects on various kinds of enzymes inside the pest body. Phosphine can cause inhibition on the animal central nervous system, irritate the lungs and cause edema, resulting in swelling heart syndrome. Fumigants such as trichloroethane, dibromoethane and carbon tetrachloride are mainly narcotics while carbon dioxide mainly causes stifling effect.
This information is edited by Xiongfeng Dai from Chemicalbook.