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Carbon dioxide

EINECS 204-696-9
CAS No. 124-38-9 Density 0.984 g/cm3
Solubility Melting Point -78.5 °C(lit.)
Formula CO2 Boiling Point
Molecular Weight 44.01 Flash Point
Transport Information UN 1013 2.2 Appearance colourless odourless gas
Safety Risk Codes
Molecular Structure Molecular Structure of 124-38-9 (Carbon dioxide) Hazard Symbols

Carbonoxide (CO2);Carbon-12 dioxide;Carbon-12C dioxide-16O2;Carbonic acidanhydride;Carbonic acid gas;Carbonic anhydride;Dry ice;EN 439C1;Khladon744;R 744;


Carbon dioxide Chemical Properties

IUPAC Name: Carbon dioxide
Empirical Formula: CO2
Molecular Weight: 44.0095
EINECS: 204-696-9
Classification Code: Human Data; Reproductive Effect; Stimulant [respiratory]
Stability: Stable. Incompatible with chemically active metals, such as alkali metals.
Melting Point: -78.5 °C(lit.)
storage temp.: -70 °C
Boiling point: -57 °C,
Index of Refraction: 1.246
Molar Refractivity: 6.98 cm3
Molar Volume: 44.7 cm3
Surface Tension: 3.4 dyne/cm
Density: 0.984 g/cm3
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 16.86 kJ/mol
Vapour Pressure of Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9): 28300 mmHg at 25 °C

Carbon dioxide History

1、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) was one of the first gases to be described as a substance distinct from air. In the seventeenth century, the Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont observed that when he burned charcoal in a closed vessel, the mass of the resulting ash was much less than that of the original charcoal.
2、The properties of Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) were studied more thoroughly in the 1750s by the Scottish physician Joseph Black.
3、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) was first liquefied (at elevated pressures) in 1823 by Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday.The earliest description of solid carbon dioxide was given by Charles Thilorier, who in 1834 opened a pressurized container of liquid carbon dioxide, only to find that the cooling produced by the rapid evaporation of the liquid yielded a "snow" of solid CO2.

Carbon dioxide Uses

1、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the chemical industry. It is used in many consumer products.
2、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is used to produce carbonated soft drinks and soda water.
3、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is one of the most commonly used compressed gases for pneumatic (pressurized gas) systems in portable pressure tools and combat robots.
4、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) also finds use as an atmosphere for welding, although in the welding arc, it reacts to oxidize most metals. It is used as a welding gas primarily because it is much less expensive than more inert gases such as argon or helium.
5、Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9)  is a good solvent for many lipophilic organic compounds, and is used to remove caffeine from coffee.
6、In the chemical industry, Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is used for the production of urea, carbonates and bicarbonates, and sodium salicylate.

Carbon dioxide Production

 Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is produced mainly from six processes:
1、From combustion of fossil fuels and wood;
2、As a by-product of hydrogen production plants, where methane is converted to CO2;
3、As a by-product of fermentation of sugar in the brewing of beer, whisky and other alcoholic beverages;
4、From thermal decomposition of limestone, CaCO3, in the manufacture of lime, CaO;
5、As a by-product of sodium phosphate manufacture;
6、Directly from natural carbon dioxide springs, where it is produced by the action of acidified water on limestone or dolomite.

Carbon dioxide Toxicity Data With Reference

Organism Test Type Route Reported Dose (Normalized Dose) Effect Source
human LCLo inhalation 9pph/5M (90000ppm)   Tabulae Biologicae. Vol. 3, Pg. 231, 1933.
mammal (species unspecified) LCLo inhalation 90000ppm/5M (90000ppm)   Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 138, Pg. 65, 1928.

Carbon dioxide Consensus Reports

 Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9) is reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

Carbon dioxide Safety Profile

Safety Statements:  9 
S9:Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
RIDADR: UN 1013 2.2
F: 4.5-31
HazardClass: 2.2
PackingGroup:  III
Contact of solid Carbon dioxide snow with the skin can cause burns. Dusts of magnesium, zirconium, titanium, and some magnesium-aluminum alloys ignite and then explode in CO2 atmospheres. Dusts of aluminum, chromium, and manganese ignite and then explode when heated in CO2.

Carbon dioxide Standards and Recommendations

OSHA PEL: TWA 10,000 ppm; STEL 30,000 ppm
ACGIH TLV: TWA 5000 ppm; STEL 30,000 ppm
DFG MAK: 5000 ppm (9100 mg/m3)
NIOSH REL: (Carbon Dioxide) TWA 10,000 ppm; CL 30,000 ppm/10M
DOT Classification:  2.2; Label: Nonflammable Gas; DOT Class: 9; Label: None (UN 1845)

Carbon dioxide Analytical Methods

For occupational chemical analysis use OSHA: #ID-172 or NIOSH: Carbon Dioxide, S249.

Carbon dioxide Specification

  Carbon dioxide (CAS NO.124-38-9), its Synonyms are Carbon oxide ; Carbon oxide, di- ; Carbonic acid anhydride ; Carbonic acid gas ; Carbonic anhydride ; Carbonica ; Caswell No. 163 ; Dioxido de carbono ; Dioxido de carbono [Spanish] ; Dioxyde de carbone ; Dioxyde de carbone [French] ; Dry ice . It is colourless odourless gas.

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